Paper in Learning and Individual Differences
  • Bui, M., Birney, D.P. (2014). Learning and individual differences in Gf processes and Raven's. Learning and Individual Differences, 32 pp. 104 - 113.

    Learning processes are often associated with intelligence and induction but rarely empirically examined in relation to fluid intelligence (Gf) tasks. This study examined whether learning of Raven's Distribution of Two (D2) rule occurs, and whether this learning contributes to individual differences. Learning sets with different numbers of D2 rule items were presented to 284 participants in three exposure conditions and then tested for transfer. Results suggest learning about a specific rule is not necessary for induction to take place. However, evidence that rule learning contributes to individual differences in Raven's performance was observed, with those higher in Gf benefitting most from more exposure. This Gf advantage was only evident when actualized learning opportunity (successful solution) was taken into account, as opposed to potential learning opportunity (mere exposure). Mere item exposure appears insufficient for rule learning unless the individual solves items correctly and thus receives actualized learning opportunity.