of the Faculty of Science will be able to create new knowledge and understanding
through the process of research and inquiry.
Critical thinking is accepting nothing at face value, but rather examining
the truth and validity of arguments and evaluating the relative importance
of ideas. Critical thinking includes evaluating and weighing different
sides of an argument, applying reason and logic to determine the merits
of arguments, and drawing and evaluating conclusions from logical arguments
and data analysis. Critical thinking requires background skills such as
imagination and creativity, logic
and reasoning, conceptual thinking, reflection
Problem solving is the ability to identify, define and analyze problems,
to create solutions and evaluate them, and to choose the best solution
for a particular context. It requires imaginative and innovative thinking
to find new ways to approach a problem, analytical skills to examine the
consequences of a particular solution, and reasoning skills to weigh one
solution against another. A common form of problem solving in science
is experimentation. Problem solving involves the background skills of
imagination and creativity, logic
and reasoning, data collection, conceptual
thinking, reflection and feedback, and scientific
Analysis is the ability to gather relevant data and information and apply
methods of synthesis, critical thinking and data reduction to locate and
understand patterns or connections in that information. Scientific analysis
often requires mathematical techniques to manipulate data, such as graphing
experimental results or using statistical tests to examine differences
between sets of data. Analysis requires the background skills of data
analysis, reflection and feedback, scientific
Dissemination is communicating to others the purpose and outcomes of research.
It requires the ability to summarise information, explain the aims, motives,
results and conclusions of the research, and tailor the communication
to the needs and knowledge level of a particular audience. Dissemination
requires the background skills of imagination and
creativity, logic and reasoning, conceptual
thinking, reflection and feedback.
and Creativity is:
for different approaches to a problem or situation (such as adapting
technology for a novel purpose like using medical technology on plants)
for alternatives to common or accepted methods and solutions.
to examine issues from a different point of view (such as seeing an
argument from another person's perspective).
and reasoning is:
the structure of logical arguments, including deductive and inductive
the logical basis for scientific claims and conclusions (such as deciding
whether you agree with the conclusions drawn in a scientific paper,
based on the evidence given)
conclusions from scientific arguments or analyses (for example, making
valid generalisations or predictions from experimental data).
data (for example through carrying out experiments, surveys, focus groups,
interviews, literature reviews)
a data collection tool (for example, planning an experiment or constructing
an appropriate method (mathematical or otherwise) for interpreting and
techniques of statistical analysis, including using statistics in research
and the statistical analysis of surveys (such as identifying and applying
an appropriate statistical test of significance)
of the limitations of analysis techniques (for example, understanding
the assumptions behind a statistical analysis, and examining whether
your data fit these assumptions)
appropriate conclusions from results of analysis.
a big issue into smaller, manageable parts (for example, breaking an
experimental investigation into a series of smaller measurements)
concepts and ideas relevant to a problem, synthesizing concepts and
available data to construct a solution
judgements about the value and relevance of ideas and information (for
example, deciding to ignore a particular factor because it contributes
only a small amount to the overall problem).
and feedback is:
about what you have done, what you might have done differently, how
you feel about it, and how you might change it to improve your learning
(for example, reflecting on the outcomes of a research project and deciding
on a different course of action for next time)
insight gained through reflection to improve your own or others' work
or situation (for example, watching others perform and offering feedback
on the way they are tackling a problem).
and designing an appropriate experimental procedure understanding the
limitations and scope of an experimental design (for example, sample
sizes and measurement uncertainties).