The Chancellor (Provost from 1850 to 1860) is elected by the Senate for a four year term of office to chair Senate meetings and to facilitate its work and collegiality.

– Provosts: 
1851-1854    Edward William Terrick Hamilton
1854-1860 Sir Charles Nicholson Bt, MD Edin HonDCL Oxf HonLLD Camb

– Chancellors:
1860-1862 Sir Charles Nicholson Bt, MD Edin HonDCL Oxf HonLLD Camb  
1862-1865 The Hon Francis Lewis Shaw Merewether, BA Camb
1878-1895 Sir William Montagu Manning KCMG LLD UCL
1895-1896 Sir William Charles Windeyer, MA Sydney HonLLD Camb
1896-1914 Sir Henry Normand MacLaurin MA LLD StAnd MD LLD Edin
1914-1934 The Hon Sir William Portus Cullen KCMG, MA LLD Sydney 
1934-1936 Sir Mungo William MacCallum KCSG, MA Glas LLD Sydney HonDLitt Oxf
1936-1941 Sir Percival Halse Rogers KBE, BA Sydney BCL Oxf
1941-1964 Sir Charles Bickerton Blackburn KCMG OBE,  BA Adel MD ChM Sydney
HonDLitt UNE & Sydney HonDSc Tas, NSW & Qld HonLLD Melb & WAust, FRCP FRSM FRACP HonFRCPEd
1964-1969 Sir Charles George McDonald KCMG KSG, MB ChM Sydney, FRCP FRACP
1970-1990 Sir Hermann David Black AC, MEc DUniv Sydney HonDLitt N'cle(NSW) DUniv UNE, FCIS FASA  
1990-1991 Air Marshal Sir  James Anthony Rowland AC KBE DFC AFC KStJ, BE HonDEng Sydney, FRAeS CEng FIEAust  
1991-2001 Emeritus Professor Dame Leonie Judith Kramer AC DBE, BA Melb MA Sydney DPhil Oxf
HonDLitt Tas HonLLD Melb & ANU HonDLitt Qld & NSW DUniv GUPS St Petersburg, FACE
2001-2007  The Hon G F Kim Santow AO, BA LLM Sydney
2007-2012  Her Excellency Professor Marie Roslyn Bashir AC CVO, MB BS HonMD Sydney, FRANZCP