Glossary

Artwork: a general term describing photos, drawings, paintings, text used for printed products or electronic media communication.

Author’s Corrections: these are client corrections and/or type changes made at proofing stage. As these are not due to printer error they are deemed chargeable to the client. Therefore it is recommended files are to be checked thoroughly prior to sending off to the printer.

Bleed: this refers to images, colour or text that prints off the edge of a trimmed page. Bleed illustrations are usually imposed to print beyond the trimmed page size. An image, text or border may bleed at the head, front, foot and/or gutter (back) of a page.

Celloglazing: a laminating finish which prevents scuffing or marking and enhances the printed job.

Crop Marks: marks along side the margins of an illustration (or photo) which are used to indicate the portion of the illustration to be reproduced.

Diecut: process by which shapes are cut into printed material.

Embossing: a process performed after printing to stamp a raised or depressed image (artwork or typography) into the surface of paper, using engraved metal embossing dies, extreme pressure and heat. Embossing style include blind and foil-embossed.

Foiling: metallic foil that is stamped on and not printed.

Font: a graphic design applied to all numerals, symbols and characters in the alphabet. A font usually comes in different sizes and provides different styles such as bold, italic and underlining for emphasising text.

Four-Colour process: The four basic colours of ink (cyan, magenta, yellow, black). These are used to produce full colour photographs or art.

Halftone: Picture with gradations of tone that are formed by dots of varying sizes.

House Errors: Any corrections and or changes made due to printer errors as opposed to changes made by the author, clients or editors. The cost of House Errors are absorbed by the printer or typesetter.

Justified: Describes text copy that is typeset flush to both the left and right margins.

Leaf: one sheet of paper (contains 2 pages).

Offset: A method in which the plate or cylinder transfers an ink image to an offset or transfer roller, and then to paper.

Page: one side of a leaf.

Perfect Binding (Adhesive binding): a finishing technique in which the pages are glued and not sewn to the spine. Used primarily for paperbacks, small manuals, phone books and magazines with a flat spine.

Press ready artwork: material given to the printer that needs no further work before being printed.

Quote: a price provided to a customer based on the specifications requested. It is normally sent prior to entry of an order and prices may change if the order specifications are not the same as the quote specifications. Quotes are valid for 30 days from date of submission.

Ream: five hundred sheets of paper.

Register Marks: Crosses or other marks applied to original copy prior to photography used for achieving perfect alignment (register) between negatives and colour separations.

Reverse: Type appears white on a black or coloured background or in a dark area of a photograph.

Saddle Stitch: A binding process for pamphlets or booklets in which paper is stapled through middle fold of the sheets (with 2 wires/staples).

Score: To press a mark in a sheet of paper, usually cover stock. This makes folding cleaner and easier. Often necessary when folding against the paper’s grain to avoid cracking on the spine.

Screen Ruling: the number of lines or dots per inch in both directions on a contact screen to make halftones or separations. Screen rulings are available from 65 lines per inch to 200 lines per inch. For colour separations, however, it is best to uses 175 lpi for best press control and visual resolution.

Solid: An area completely covered with ink or the 100% usage of a given colour. Or in composition, any type set without space (leading) between the lines.

Varnishing:
Machine Matt: a matt protective coating
Machine Gloss: a glossy protective coating
UV: A glossy protective coating.