Dr Karren Plain

BSc PhD
Research Fellow  

C01A - Jl Shute - Camden
The University of Sydney

Telephone +61 2 9036 7737

Biographical details

Karren joined the Farm Animal and Veterinary Public Health group as a Research Fellow in 2007. Her work involves the analysis of differential gene expression in the host/pathogen interaction in Johne¿s disease, identification of genetic resistance traits and development of techniques for early diagnose of infection.

Interests include understanding how the immune response is controlled in chronic infectious diseases. Without control, an immune response that is meant to protect may damage the normal tissues in the body. These principles have been applied to the study of Johne¿s disease in sheep and cattle, a chronic disease where the infectious organism attempts to evade immune attack. One form of evasion may be by harnessing of immune regulatory mechanisms that have evolved to protect the host.

Selected grants

2010

  • 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium to be held in Tokyo on August 16-20, 2010; Plain K; The Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney/Postdoctoral fellow and new academic staff travel funds.

2006

  • Travel Scholarship to attend the World Transplant Congress; Plain K; University of New South Wales/Scholarship.

2005

  • Role of cytokines in transplantation tolerance; Plain K; Health Research Foundation Sydney South West/Research Support.
  • Young Investigator Award; Plain K; The Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand/Young Investigator Awards.

Selected publications

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Journals

  • Plain, K., Marsh, I., Waldron, A., Galea, F., Whittington, A., Saunders, V., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2014). High-Throughput Direct Faecal PCR Assay to detect Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in sheep and cattle. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 52(3), 745-757.
  • de Silva, K., Begg, D., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Kawaji, S., Dhand, N., Whittington, R. (2013). Can early host responses to mycobacterial infection predict eventual disease outcomes? Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 112, 203-212.
  • Thirunavukkarasu, S., Plain, K., Eckstein, T., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2013). Cellular and humoral immunogenicity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific lipopentapeptide antigens. Research In Veterinary Science, 95, 123-129. [More Information]
  • Whittington, R., Whittington, A., Waldron, A., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Plain, K. (2013). Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified BACTEC 12B medium. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 51(12), 3993-4000. [More Information]
  • Thirunavukkarasu, S., de Silva, K., Whittington, R., Plain, K. (2013). In vivo and in vitro expression pattern pattern of Toll-like receptors in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 156, 20-31.
  • Whittington, R., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A. (2012). Comparative immunological and microbiological aspects of paratuberculosis as a model mycobacterial infection. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 148(1-2), 29-47.
  • Plain, K., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2012). Enhancement of the interferon gamma assay to detect paratuberculosis using interleukin-7 and interleukin-12 potentiation. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 149(1-2), 28-37. [More Information]
  • Purdie (Williams), A., Plain, K., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2012). Expression of genes associated with the antigen presentation and processing pathway are consistently regulated in early Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: the international journal for medical and veterinary researchers and practitioners, 35(2), 151-162. [More Information]
  • Kawaji, S., Begg, D., Plain, K., Whittington, R. (2011). A longitudinal study to evaluate the diagnostic potential of a direct faecal quantitative PCR test for Johne's disease in sheep. Veterinary Microbiology, 148(1), 35-44. [More Information]
  • Purdie (Williams), A., Plain, K., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2011). Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle and sheep: A review. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: the international journal for medical and veterinary researchers and practitioners, 34(3), 197-208. [More Information]
  • Begg, D., de Silva, K., Carter, N., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2011). Does a Th1 over Th2 dominancy really exist in the early stages of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infections? Immunobiology, 216(7), 840-846. [More Information]
  • Plain, K., de Silva, K., Earl, J., Begg, D., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2011). Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase, Tryptophan Catabolism, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a model for Chronic Mycobacterial Infection. Infection and Immunity, 79(9), 3821-3832. [More Information]
  • Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Carter, N., Killingsworth, M., Nomura, M., Verma, N., Plain, K., Boyd, R., Hall, B. (2010). Membrane attack complex of complement is not essential for immune mediated demyelination in experimental autoimmune neuritis. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 229(1-2), 98-106. [More Information]
  • Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2010). Toll-like receptor (TLR)6 and TLR1 differentiation in gene expression studies of Johne's disease. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 137(1-2), 142-148. [More Information]
  • Verma, N., Plain, K., Nomura, M., Tran, G., Robinson, C., Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2009). CD4+CD25+T cells alloactivated ex vivo by IL-2 or IL-4 become potent alloantigen-specific inhibitors of rejection with different phenotypes, suggesting seperate pathways of activation by Th1 and Th2 responses. Blood, 113(2), 479-487. [More Information]
  • Tay, S., Plain, K., Bishop, G. (2009). Role of IL-4 and Th2 responses in allograft rejection and tolerance. Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation, 14(1), 16-22. [More Information]
  • Hall, B., Robinson, C., Plain, K., Verma, N., Carter, N., Boyd, R., Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S. (2008). Studies on naïve CD4+CD25+ T cell inhibition of naïve CD4+CD25- T cells in mixed lymphocyte culture. Transplant Immunology, 18(4), 291-301.
  • Davidson, C., Verma, N., Robinson, C., Plain, K., Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2007). IL-13 prolongs allograft survival: Association with inhibition of macrophage cytokine activation. Transplant Immunology, 17(3), 178-186.
  • Hall, B., Plain, K., Verma, N., Tran, G., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Nicolls, M., Berger, M., Nomura, M., Hodgkinson, S. (2007). Transfer of allograft specific tolerance requires CD4+CD25 +T cells but not interleukin-4 or transforming growth factor-β and cannot induce tolerance to linked antigens. Transplantation, 83(8), 1075-1084.
  • Plain, K., Boyd, R., Verma, N., Robinson, C., Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2007). Transplant tolerance associated with a Th1 response and not broken by IL-4, IL-5, and TGF-β blockade or Th1 cytokine administration. Transplantation, 83(6), 764-773.
  • Verma, N., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Plain, K., Tran, G., Hall, B. (2006). Interleukin-12p70 Prolongs Allograft Survival by Induction of Interferon Gamma and Nitric Oxide Production. Transplantation, 82(10), 1324-1333.
  • Nomura, M., Plain, K., Verma, N., Robinson, C., Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2006). The cellular basis of cardiac allograft rejection. IX. Ratio of naive CD4+CD25+/CD4+CD25- T cells determines rejection or tolerance. Transplantation Proceedings, 15(4), 311-318.
  • Chen, J., Huoam, C., Plain, K., He, X., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2001). CD4+,CD25+ T cells as regulators of alloimmune responses. Transplantation Proceedings, 33(1-2), 163-164.
  • Hall, B., Chen, J., Robinson, C., He, X., Plain, K., Verma, N., Hodgkinson, S. (2001). Conditioned dendritic cells as a temporal bridge between T helper and cytotoxic cells. Transplantation Proceedings, 33(1-2), 195-196.
  • Tran, G., Carter, N., He, X., Spicer, T., Plain, K., Nicolls, M., Hall, B., Hodgkinson, S. (2001). Reversal of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis with non-mitogenic, non-depleting anti-CD3 mAb therapy with a preferential effect on Th1 cells that is augmented by IL-4. International Immunology, 13(9), 1109-1120.

Conferences

  • de Silva, K., Begg, D., Purdie (Williams), A., Plain, K., Whittington, R. (2013). Comparison Of The Host Immune Response To Gudair® Vaccination And Map Exposure. International Veterinary Immunology Syposium.
  • Marsh, I., Plain, K., Galea, F., Waldron, A., Whittington, A., Whittington, R. (2012). A New and Improved Semi-Automated direct faecal PCR Test for Johne's Disease. 94th District veterinarian's Conference, Wollongong: District veterinarian's association.
  • Plain, K., Marsh, B., Begg, D., Galea, F., Waldron, A., Whittington, A., Whittington, R. (2012). A new high-throughput direct faecal PCR test for Johnes diesease. IVVDC 2012, Queensland: N/A.
  • Plain, K., Marsh, I., Begg, D., Galea, F., Waldron, A., Whittington, A., Whittington, R. (2012). A new high-throughput direct faecal PCR test for Johne’s disease. 6th International Veterinary Vaccines and Diagnostics Conference, N/A: N/A.
  • Purdie (Williams), A., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Plain, K., Whittington, R. (2012). Differential gene expression changes associated with sub-clinical Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in cattle: a transcriptomic study. Immunology 2012, usa: N/A.
  • de Silva, K., Begg, D., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Kawaji, S., Dhand, N., Whittington, R. (2012). Early biomarkers of resistance and susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. Immunology 2012, usa: N/A.
  • Begg, D., Plain, K., de Silva, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2012). Extension of the storage time of blood in interferon gamma assays to diagnose paratuberculosis: combination of IL-7 and IL-12 stimulation. 6th International Veterinary Vaccines and Diagnostics Conference, N/A: N/A.
  • Begg, D., Plain, K., de Silva, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2012). Extension of the storage time of blood in interferon gamma assays to disgnose paratuberculosis: combination of II-7 and II-12 stimulation. 4th European Veterinary Immunology Workshop (EVIW), N/A: N/A.
  • Begg, D., Plain, K., de Silva, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2012). Extension of the storgage time of blood in interferon gamma assay to diagnose paratuberculosis: reporting guidelines. 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, N/A: N/A.
  • de Silva, K., Begg, D., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Kawaji, S., Whittington, R. (2012). Immune profiles and faecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis indicate eventual severity of Johne's Disease. 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, N/A: N/A.
  • Thirunavukkarasu, S., Plain, K., de Silva, K., Eckstein, T., Whittington, R. (2012). Macrophage immune responses to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and antigens. 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, N/A: N/A.
  • Marsh, I., Plain, K., Galea, F., Waldron, A., Whittington, A., Whittington, R. (2012). New and Improved direct faecal PCR test for Johne's Disease. 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, N/A: N/A.
  • Thirunavukkarasu, S., Purdie (Williams), A., Plain, K., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2012). Novel gene expression profile in the blood cells of cattle experimentally exposed to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. IMMUNOLOGY2012™ The 99th AAI Annual Meeting!, USA: N/A.
  • Plain, K., de Silva, K., Earl, J., Begg, D., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2012). The role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan catabolism in paratuberculosis disease progression. 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, N/A: N/A.
  • Purdie (Williams), A., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Plain, K., Whittington, R. (2012). Transcriptomic analysis of sub clinical mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis infection in cattle. 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, N/A: N/A.
  • Verma, N., Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Plain, K., Bishop, A., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Wang, C., Hall, B. (2011). IL-12p70 induces IL-2 alloactivated CD4+CD25+ Treg to Th1 like Treg that suppress fully allogeneic graft rejection. 41st Australasian Society for Immunology Annual Meeting, N/A: N/A.
  • Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Carter, N., Killingsworth, M., Nomura, M., Verma, N., Plain, K., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Hall, B. (2011). IL-5 therapy prevents autoimmune demyelination by promotion of IL-4 activated antigen specific Treg. 41st Australasian Society for Immunology Annual Meeting, N/A: N/A.
  • Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Carter, N., Verma, N., Robinson, C., Plain, K., Boyd, R., Hall, B. (2011). In vitro induction of antigen specific CD4+CD25+ Tregulatory cells that prevent autoimmune mediated demyelination. 41st Australasian Society for Immunology Annual Meeting, N/A: N/A.
  • Begg, D., de Silva, K., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2010). Does a Th1 over Th2 dominance exist in the early stages of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections? 9th IVIS International Veterinary Immunology Symposium, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • de Silva, K., Begg, D., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Kawaji, S., Whittington, R. (2010). Immune correlates of protection and susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. 41st Australasian Society for Immunology Annual Meeting, N/A: N/A.
  • de Silva, K., Begg, D., Kawaji, S., Plain, K., Whittington, R. (2010). Immune profile and faecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis vary with lesion severity in Johne’s disease. 9th IVIS International Veterinary Immunology Symposium, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Whittington, R., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A. (2010). Immunological characteristics of paratuberculosis as a mycobacterial infection. 9th IVIS International Veterinary Immunology Symposium, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Whittington, R., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A. (2010). Mycobacterial infection – lessons from tuberculosis and paratuberculosis. 9th IVIS International Veterinary Immunology Symposium, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Plain, K., de Silva, K., Earl, J., Begg, D., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2010). Role of IDO and tryptophan catabolism in chronic mycobacterial disease pathogenesis. 41st Australasian Society for Immunology Annual Meeting, N/A: N/A.
  • Plain, K. (2010). Role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the response to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis iinfection. 9th IVIS International Veterinary Immunology Symposium, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Begg, D., Plain, K., Waldron, A., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2009). Development of an Experimental Infection Model in Cattle using a Low Passage Seed Stock of MAP. 10th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota.
  • Plain, K., Begg, D., Waldron, A., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2009). Development of an experimental infection protocol in cattle using a low passage cultured strain of MAP. 10th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, USA: University of Minnesota.
  • Verma, N., Plain, K., Nomura, M., Tran, G., Robinson, C., Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2008). IL-2 or IL-4 activated CD4+CD25+T cells in MLC become antigen specific and respectively express IFN-y receptor (R) or IL-5Ra. Keystone Symposia conference "Tolerance in transplantation and Autoimmunity", Colorado, USA: Keystone Symposia.
  • Plain, K., Verma, N., Tran, G., Nomura, M., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2008). IL-4 has tolerogenic and allogenic effects; it activates CD4+CD25+T cells to induce specific transplant tolerance and promotes rejection, effecting CD4+CD25-T cells to express CD25 but not Foxp3. Keystone Symposia conference "Tolerance in transplantation and Autoimmunity", Colorado, USA: Keystone Symposia.
  • Plain, K., Begg, D., Whittington, R. (2008). Role of IDO in the response to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection. Australasian Society for Immunology Conference 2008, Australia: Australasian Society for Immunology.
  • Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Carter, N., Tran, G., Plain, K., Verma, N., Robinson, C., Hall, B. (2007). Absence of membrane attack complex (MAC), delays onset of proteinuria in heymann nephritis (HN). 43rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Nephrology. Blackwell Synergy.
  • Verma, N., Plain, K., Tran, G., Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Carter, N., Robinson, C., Hall, B. (2007). Allograft tolerance mediating CD4+T cells depend upon interferon- gamma (IFN-g) or interleukin-5 (IL-5). 43rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Nephrology. Blackwell Synergy.
  • Plain, K., Verma, N., Tran, G., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2007). Can CD4+ T cells that mediate tolerance, suppress linked alloantigens? Transplantation Society of Australian and New Zealand, 25th Annual Scientific Meeting.
  • Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Carter, N., Tran, G., Plain, K., Verma, N., Robinson, C., Hall, B. (2007). Complement C6 deficiency in Lewis rats does not prevent proteinuria in active Heymann Nephritis. American Society of Nephrology Renal Week 2007, USA: American Society of Nephrology.
  • Plain, K., Verma, N., Tran, G., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2007). IL-5 can maintain specific tolerance mediating CD4+ T cells. Transplantation Society of Australian and New Zealand, 25th Annual Scientific Meeting.
  • Verma, N., Plain, K., Robinson, C., Boyd, R., Tran, G., Carter, N., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2007). Th1 and Th2 responses induce separate lineages of CD4+CD25+T cells that mediate allograft tolerance. 43rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Nephrology. Blackwell Synergy.
  • Hall, B., Plain, K., Robinson, C., Nomura, M., Verma, N., Boyd, R., Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S. (2006). A test to detect specific immune tolerance to transplanted organs by examining in vitro reactivity of peripheral CD4+ T cells and the CD25+ and CD25- subsets. World Transplant Congress 2006, USA: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Verma, N., Plain, K., Nomura, M., Tran, G., Robinson, C., Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2006). CD4+CD25+ T suppressor cells induced by short-term culture with IL-2 or IL-4 and specific alloantigen have increased specific suppressive capacity both in vitro and in vivo. World Transplant Congress 2006, USA: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Plain, K., Verma, N., Tran, G., Boyd, R., Nomura, M., Robinson, C., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2006). IL-4 does not maintain specific tolerance mediating CD4+CD25+ T suppressor cells but induces antigen-specific naive CD4+CD25+ T cells. World Transplant Congress 2006, USA: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Hodgkinson, S., Nomura, M., Tran, G., Verma, N., Plain, K., Boyd, R., Hall, B. (2006). Transplant tolerance mediating CD4+ T cells contain CD4+CD25+ T cells that express interferon-gamma receptor and their survival is promoted by IFN-gamma. World Transplant Congress 2006, USA: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Plain, K., Verma, N., Boyd,, R., Tran, G., Carter, N., Hodgkinson, S. (2005). IFN-y receptor and IL-4 receptor expression on CD4+,CD25+ regulatory T cells. Transplantation Society of Australia.
  • Plain, K., Robinson, C., Boyd, R., Verma, N., Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2002). IL-4 does not maintain the function of specific CD4+,CD25+ regulatory T cells in allograft tolerance. Australian Society of Health and Medical Research.

2014

  • Plain, K., Marsh, I., Waldron, A., Galea, F., Whittington, A., Saunders, V., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2014). High-Throughput Direct Faecal PCR Assay to detect Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in sheep and cattle. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 52(3), 745-757.

2013

  • de Silva, K., Begg, D., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Kawaji, S., Dhand, N., Whittington, R. (2013). Can early host responses to mycobacterial infection predict eventual disease outcomes? Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 112, 203-212.
  • Thirunavukkarasu, S., Plain, K., Eckstein, T., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2013). Cellular and humoral immunogenicity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis specific lipopentapeptide antigens. Research In Veterinary Science, 95, 123-129. [More Information]
  • de Silva, K., Begg, D., Purdie (Williams), A., Plain, K., Whittington, R. (2013). Comparison Of The Host Immune Response To Gudair® Vaccination And Map Exposure. International Veterinary Immunology Syposium.
  • Whittington, R., Whittington, A., Waldron, A., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Plain, K. (2013). Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified BACTEC 12B medium. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 51(12), 3993-4000. [More Information]
  • Thirunavukkarasu, S., de Silva, K., Whittington, R., Plain, K. (2013). In vivo and in vitro expression pattern pattern of Toll-like receptors in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 156, 20-31.

2012

  • Marsh, I., Plain, K., Galea, F., Waldron, A., Whittington, A., Whittington, R. (2012). A New and Improved Semi-Automated direct faecal PCR Test for Johne's Disease. 94th District veterinarian's Conference, Wollongong: District veterinarian's association.
  • Plain, K., Marsh, B., Begg, D., Galea, F., Waldron, A., Whittington, A., Whittington, R. (2012). A new high-throughput direct faecal PCR test for Johnes diesease. IVVDC 2012, Queensland: N/A.
  • Plain, K., Marsh, I., Begg, D., Galea, F., Waldron, A., Whittington, A., Whittington, R. (2012). A new high-throughput direct faecal PCR test for Johne’s disease. 6th International Veterinary Vaccines and Diagnostics Conference, N/A: N/A.
  • Whittington, R., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A. (2012). Comparative immunological and microbiological aspects of paratuberculosis as a model mycobacterial infection. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 148(1-2), 29-47.
  • Purdie (Williams), A., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Plain, K., Whittington, R. (2012). Differential gene expression changes associated with sub-clinical Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in cattle: a transcriptomic study. Immunology 2012, usa: N/A.
  • de Silva, K., Begg, D., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Kawaji, S., Dhand, N., Whittington, R. (2012). Early biomarkers of resistance and susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. Immunology 2012, usa: N/A.
  • Plain, K., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2012). Enhancement of the interferon gamma assay to detect paratuberculosis using interleukin-7 and interleukin-12 potentiation. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 149(1-2), 28-37. [More Information]
  • Purdie (Williams), A., Plain, K., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2012). Expression of genes associated with the antigen presentation and processing pathway are consistently regulated in early Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: the international journal for medical and veterinary researchers and practitioners, 35(2), 151-162. [More Information]
  • Begg, D., Plain, K., de Silva, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2012). Extension of the storage time of blood in interferon gamma assays to diagnose paratuberculosis: combination of IL-7 and IL-12 stimulation. 6th International Veterinary Vaccines and Diagnostics Conference, N/A: N/A.
  • Begg, D., Plain, K., de Silva, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2012). Extension of the storage time of blood in interferon gamma assays to disgnose paratuberculosis: combination of II-7 and II-12 stimulation. 4th European Veterinary Immunology Workshop (EVIW), N/A: N/A.
  • Begg, D., Plain, K., de Silva, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2012). Extension of the storgage time of blood in interferon gamma assay to diagnose paratuberculosis: reporting guidelines. 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, N/A: N/A.
  • de Silva, K., Begg, D., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Kawaji, S., Whittington, R. (2012). Immune profiles and faecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis indicate eventual severity of Johne's Disease. 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, N/A: N/A.
  • Thirunavukkarasu, S., Plain, K., de Silva, K., Eckstein, T., Whittington, R. (2012). Macrophage immune responses to mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and antigens. 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, N/A: N/A.
  • Marsh, I., Plain, K., Galea, F., Waldron, A., Whittington, A., Whittington, R. (2012). New and Improved direct faecal PCR test for Johne's Disease. 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, N/A: N/A.
  • Thirunavukkarasu, S., Purdie (Williams), A., Plain, K., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2012). Novel gene expression profile in the blood cells of cattle experimentally exposed to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. IMMUNOLOGY2012™ The 99th AAI Annual Meeting!, USA: N/A.
  • Plain, K., de Silva, K., Earl, J., Begg, D., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2012). The role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan catabolism in paratuberculosis disease progression. 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, N/A: N/A.
  • Purdie (Williams), A., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Plain, K., Whittington, R. (2012). Transcriptomic analysis of sub clinical mycobacterium avium subsp.paratuberculosis infection in cattle. 11th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, N/A: N/A.

2011

  • Kawaji, S., Begg, D., Plain, K., Whittington, R. (2011). A longitudinal study to evaluate the diagnostic potential of a direct faecal quantitative PCR test for Johne's disease in sheep. Veterinary Microbiology, 148(1), 35-44. [More Information]
  • Purdie (Williams), A., Plain, K., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2011). Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle and sheep: A review. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: the international journal for medical and veterinary researchers and practitioners, 34(3), 197-208. [More Information]
  • Begg, D., de Silva, K., Carter, N., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2011). Does a Th1 over Th2 dominancy really exist in the early stages of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infections? Immunobiology, 216(7), 840-846. [More Information]
  • Verma, N., Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Plain, K., Bishop, A., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Wang, C., Hall, B. (2011). IL-12p70 induces IL-2 alloactivated CD4+CD25+ Treg to Th1 like Treg that suppress fully allogeneic graft rejection. 41st Australasian Society for Immunology Annual Meeting, N/A: N/A.
  • Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Carter, N., Killingsworth, M., Nomura, M., Verma, N., Plain, K., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Hall, B. (2011). IL-5 therapy prevents autoimmune demyelination by promotion of IL-4 activated antigen specific Treg. 41st Australasian Society for Immunology Annual Meeting, N/A: N/A.
  • Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Carter, N., Verma, N., Robinson, C., Plain, K., Boyd, R., Hall, B. (2011). In vitro induction of antigen specific CD4+CD25+ Tregulatory cells that prevent autoimmune mediated demyelination. 41st Australasian Society for Immunology Annual Meeting, N/A: N/A.
  • Plain, K., de Silva, K., Earl, J., Begg, D., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2011). Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase, Tryptophan Catabolism, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a model for Chronic Mycobacterial Infection. Infection and Immunity, 79(9), 3821-3832. [More Information]

2010

  • Begg, D., de Silva, K., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2010). Does a Th1 over Th2 dominance exist in the early stages of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections? 9th IVIS International Veterinary Immunology Symposium, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • de Silva, K., Begg, D., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Kawaji, S., Whittington, R. (2010). Immune correlates of protection and susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. 41st Australasian Society for Immunology Annual Meeting, N/A: N/A.
  • de Silva, K., Begg, D., Kawaji, S., Plain, K., Whittington, R. (2010). Immune profile and faecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis vary with lesion severity in Johne’s disease. 9th IVIS International Veterinary Immunology Symposium, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Whittington, R., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A. (2010). Immunological characteristics of paratuberculosis as a mycobacterial infection. 9th IVIS International Veterinary Immunology Symposium, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Carter, N., Killingsworth, M., Nomura, M., Verma, N., Plain, K., Boyd, R., Hall, B. (2010). Membrane attack complex of complement is not essential for immune mediated demyelination in experimental autoimmune neuritis. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 229(1-2), 98-106. [More Information]
  • Whittington, R., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A. (2010). Mycobacterial infection – lessons from tuberculosis and paratuberculosis. 9th IVIS International Veterinary Immunology Symposium, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Plain, K., de Silva, K., Earl, J., Begg, D., Purdie (Williams), A., Whittington, R. (2010). Role of IDO and tryptophan catabolism in chronic mycobacterial disease pathogenesis. 41st Australasian Society for Immunology Annual Meeting, N/A: N/A.
  • Plain, K. (2010). Role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the response to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis iinfection. 9th IVIS International Veterinary Immunology Symposium, Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Plain, K., Purdie (Williams), A., Begg, D., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2010). Toll-like receptor (TLR)6 and TLR1 differentiation in gene expression studies of Johne's disease. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 137(1-2), 142-148. [More Information]

2009

  • Verma, N., Plain, K., Nomura, M., Tran, G., Robinson, C., Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2009). CD4+CD25+T cells alloactivated ex vivo by IL-2 or IL-4 become potent alloantigen-specific inhibitors of rejection with different phenotypes, suggesting seperate pathways of activation by Th1 and Th2 responses. Blood, 113(2), 479-487. [More Information]
  • Begg, D., Plain, K., Waldron, A., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2009). Development of an Experimental Infection Model in Cattle using a Low Passage Seed Stock of MAP. 10th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota.
  • Plain, K., Begg, D., Waldron, A., de Silva, K., Whittington, R. (2009). Development of an experimental infection protocol in cattle using a low passage cultured strain of MAP. 10th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis, USA: University of Minnesota.
  • Tay, S., Plain, K., Bishop, G. (2009). Role of IL-4 and Th2 responses in allograft rejection and tolerance. Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation, 14(1), 16-22. [More Information]

2008

  • Verma, N., Plain, K., Nomura, M., Tran, G., Robinson, C., Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2008). IL-2 or IL-4 activated CD4+CD25+T cells in MLC become antigen specific and respectively express IFN-y receptor (R) or IL-5Ra. Keystone Symposia conference "Tolerance in transplantation and Autoimmunity", Colorado, USA: Keystone Symposia.
  • Plain, K., Verma, N., Tran, G., Nomura, M., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2008). IL-4 has tolerogenic and allogenic effects; it activates CD4+CD25+T cells to induce specific transplant tolerance and promotes rejection, effecting CD4+CD25-T cells to express CD25 but not Foxp3. Keystone Symposia conference "Tolerance in transplantation and Autoimmunity", Colorado, USA: Keystone Symposia.
  • Plain, K., Begg, D., Whittington, R. (2008). Role of IDO in the response to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection. Australasian Society for Immunology Conference 2008, Australia: Australasian Society for Immunology.
  • Hall, B., Robinson, C., Plain, K., Verma, N., Carter, N., Boyd, R., Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S. (2008). Studies on naïve CD4+CD25+ T cell inhibition of naïve CD4+CD25- T cells in mixed lymphocyte culture. Transplant Immunology, 18(4), 291-301.

2007

  • Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Carter, N., Tran, G., Plain, K., Verma, N., Robinson, C., Hall, B. (2007). Absence of membrane attack complex (MAC), delays onset of proteinuria in heymann nephritis (HN). 43rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Nephrology. Blackwell Synergy.
  • Verma, N., Plain, K., Tran, G., Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Carter, N., Robinson, C., Hall, B. (2007). Allograft tolerance mediating CD4+T cells depend upon interferon- gamma (IFN-g) or interleukin-5 (IL-5). 43rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Nephrology. Blackwell Synergy.
  • Plain, K., Verma, N., Tran, G., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2007). Can CD4+ T cells that mediate tolerance, suppress linked alloantigens? Transplantation Society of Australian and New Zealand, 25th Annual Scientific Meeting.
  • Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Carter, N., Tran, G., Plain, K., Verma, N., Robinson, C., Hall, B. (2007). Complement C6 deficiency in Lewis rats does not prevent proteinuria in active Heymann Nephritis. American Society of Nephrology Renal Week 2007, USA: American Society of Nephrology.
  • Davidson, C., Verma, N., Robinson, C., Plain, K., Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2007). IL-13 prolongs allograft survival: Association with inhibition of macrophage cytokine activation. Transplant Immunology, 17(3), 178-186.
  • Plain, K., Verma, N., Tran, G., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2007). IL-5 can maintain specific tolerance mediating CD4+ T cells. Transplantation Society of Australian and New Zealand, 25th Annual Scientific Meeting.
  • Verma, N., Plain, K., Robinson, C., Boyd, R., Tran, G., Carter, N., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2007). Th1 and Th2 responses induce separate lineages of CD4+CD25+T cells that mediate allograft tolerance. 43rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Nephrology. Blackwell Synergy.
  • Hall, B., Plain, K., Verma, N., Tran, G., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Nicolls, M., Berger, M., Nomura, M., Hodgkinson, S. (2007). Transfer of allograft specific tolerance requires CD4+CD25 +T cells but not interleukin-4 or transforming growth factor-β and cannot induce tolerance to linked antigens. Transplantation, 83(8), 1075-1084.
  • Plain, K., Boyd, R., Verma, N., Robinson, C., Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2007). Transplant tolerance associated with a Th1 response and not broken by IL-4, IL-5, and TGF-β blockade or Th1 cytokine administration. Transplantation, 83(6), 764-773.

2006

  • Hall, B., Plain, K., Robinson, C., Nomura, M., Verma, N., Boyd, R., Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S. (2006). A test to detect specific immune tolerance to transplanted organs by examining in vitro reactivity of peripheral CD4+ T cells and the CD25+ and CD25- subsets. World Transplant Congress 2006, USA: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Verma, N., Plain, K., Nomura, M., Tran, G., Robinson, C., Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2006). CD4+CD25+ T suppressor cells induced by short-term culture with IL-2 or IL-4 and specific alloantigen have increased specific suppressive capacity both in vitro and in vivo. World Transplant Congress 2006, USA: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Plain, K., Verma, N., Tran, G., Boyd, R., Nomura, M., Robinson, C., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2006). IL-4 does not maintain specific tolerance mediating CD4+CD25+ T suppressor cells but induces antigen-specific naive CD4+CD25+ T cells. World Transplant Congress 2006, USA: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Verma, N., Boyd, R., Robinson, C., Plain, K., Tran, G., Hall, B. (2006). Interleukin-12p70 Prolongs Allograft Survival by Induction of Interferon Gamma and Nitric Oxide Production. Transplantation, 82(10), 1324-1333.
  • Nomura, M., Plain, K., Verma, N., Robinson, C., Boyd, R., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2006). The cellular basis of cardiac allograft rejection. IX. Ratio of naive CD4+CD25+/CD4+CD25- T cells determines rejection or tolerance. Transplantation Proceedings, 15(4), 311-318.
  • Hodgkinson, S., Nomura, M., Tran, G., Verma, N., Plain, K., Boyd, R., Hall, B. (2006). Transplant tolerance mediating CD4+ T cells contain CD4+CD25+ T cells that express interferon-gamma receptor and their survival is promoted by IFN-gamma. World Transplant Congress 2006, USA: Blackwell Publishers.

2005

  • Plain, K., Verma, N., Boyd,, R., Tran, G., Carter, N., Hodgkinson, S. (2005). IFN-y receptor and IL-4 receptor expression on CD4+,CD25+ regulatory T cells. Transplantation Society of Australia.

2002

  • Plain, K., Robinson, C., Boyd, R., Verma, N., Tran, G., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2002). IL-4 does not maintain the function of specific CD4+,CD25+ regulatory T cells in allograft tolerance. Australian Society of Health and Medical Research.

2001

  • Chen, J., Huoam, C., Plain, K., He, X., Hodgkinson, S., Hall, B. (2001). CD4+,CD25+ T cells as regulators of alloimmune responses. Transplantation Proceedings, 33(1-2), 163-164.
  • Hall, B., Chen, J., Robinson, C., He, X., Plain, K., Verma, N., Hodgkinson, S. (2001). Conditioned dendritic cells as a temporal bridge between T helper and cytotoxic cells. Transplantation Proceedings, 33(1-2), 195-196.
  • Tran, G., Carter, N., He, X., Spicer, T., Plain, K., Nicolls, M., Hall, B., Hodgkinson, S. (2001). Reversal of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis with non-mitogenic, non-depleting anti-CD3 mAb therapy with a preferential effect on Th1 cells that is augmented by IL-4. International Immunology, 13(9), 1109-1120.

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