WORKING WITH CHEMICALS
Many of the chemicals we work with can be harmful to our health if we are exposed to them. Some pose a risk of injury or incident if not handled properly. There are also specific legislative requirements for working with hazardous chemicals.
The University requirements for working with chemicals, framework for implementation and associated guidance have been developed with reference to:
- NSW Work Health and Safety Act 2011
- NSW Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011
- NSW Poisons and Therapeutic Goods Regulation 2008
- Safe Work Australia Code of Practice - Managing Risk of Hazardous Chemicals in the Workplace 2012
- WorkCover NSW Code of Practice – Labelling of Workplace Hazardous Chemicals 2011
- The University of Sydney Work Health and Safety Policy 2012.
The University performance standards for working with chemical are applicable to all University staff and students who work with chemicals. It is also applicable to contractors and University affiliates who work with chemicals on University property.
- Hazardous chemicals are pure chemicals, or chemical mixtures that present an immediate or long term risk of injury or illness. The risk can be associated with health hazards or physiochemical hazards (e.g. flammable, corrosive, reactive).
- Dangerous goods are substances or articles that pose an immediate risk to safety, property or the environment. (e.g. flammable, toxic, corrosive). Most chemicals that are classified as dangerous goods are also classified as hazardous chemicals.
- Scheduled poisons are chemicals and pharmaceuticals that have special controls applied to how they are packaged, labelled, dispensed and used to ensure the safety of the community.
- Chemicals of Security Concern are chemicals that have been identified by the Australian Government as requiring attention due of their potential for misuse by terrorists.
- Restricted or Prohibited Carcinogens are cancer-causing chemicals that require WorkCover authorisation if used or stored in the workplace.
- Drug Precursors are chemicals which can be used for illicit drug manufacture.
Summary of performance standards
- The procurement of chemicals must be controlled by local management.
- Each workgroup (eg. research group) that uses chemicals must have an up-to-date chemical register.
- Relevant safety data sheets (SDS) must be readily accessible to all staff and students working with chemicals.
- All chemical containers must be appropriately labelled.
- Risk assessments must be completed for tasks involving chemicals, risk controls applied and relevant safe operating procedures established.
- Appropriate storage must be provided for chemicals.
- Access to chemicals must be restricted.
- Chemicals must be disposed of via the University’s hazardous waste disposal system.
- Staff and students who work with chemicals must be provided with sufficient training and supervision to work safely and competently.
- Staff and students who work with chemicals must be prepared for emergencies.
The procurement of chemicals must be controlled by the relevant local management. Approval to purchase a chemical should only be provided if:
- the relevant SDS has been reviewed.
- it has been determined that no safer alternative is available.
- the volume of the chemical is appropriate to the expected short-term demand for use.
- adequate storage facilities are available.
- appropriate facilities and competent staff are available to safely carryout (or supervise) the work involving the chemical.
Chemicals should be purchased in small quantities, as required. The cost of chemical waste disposal often cancels out any cost saving achieved by purchasing in bulk.
Some chemicals have a limited life span, and may deteriorate and become unstable with age (eg. diethyl ether, perchloric acid). If the chemical is expected to become unstable over time, this must be identified at the time of purchase and arrangements made to manage the risk.
There are additional special requirements for the procurement and use of Schedule 7 Poisons, Schedule 8 Controlled Drugs and Carcinogenic Substances, Drug Precursors and Chemicals of Security Concern. Some chemicals required detailed tracking and monitoring.
The chemical register is a tool for the management of the chemicals used and stored by a workgroup. It includes a list of chemicals, their classification, storage locations and typical volumes. The register also provides information about how each chemical is used with links to the SDS, risk assessments and standard operating procedures. All staff must have access to the chemical register for their workgroup.
Download the University Chemical Register template.
An SDS is a document prepared by the manufacturer and provided to you by the supplier. It will state whether the chemical is classified as hazardous and/or a dangerous good and provide details about the physical and chemical properties of the substance and precautions for safe use. Manufacturers/suppliers are required to review and update SDS every 5 years. Ensure you have the current SDS.
Safety Data sheets must be readily available to all staff and students who may be exposed to that chemical. It is acceptable to keep printed SDS together with the chemical register or to store the SDS electronically, as long as they are readily accessible.
The ChemAlert database provides access to a large range of supplier SDS, which can be viewed and printed in a standard format. ChemAlert is also a useful tool for printing labels.
The WorkCover Guide to Reading Labels and Material Safety Data Sheets and the the WorkCover Code of Practice Preparation of Safety Data Sheets for Hazardous Chemicals provide further information on SDS.
All chemicals and chemical mixtures must be labelled to identify their contents and provide basic health and safety information. ChemAlert can be used to print chemical labels, which meet compliance requirements.
In situations where a chemical is decanted from a manufacturer’s container to another container, used to make a dilute stock solution or synthesized from other chemicals the following information must be included on the label:
- chemical identifier.
- relevant hazard statement/s or pictogram/s .
- name of the person who decanted the substance or prepared the solution.
- date that the substance was decanted or prepared.
All of this information can be found on the manufacturer’s original label and the MSDS.
The chemical identifier for a research sample may be the actual name, recognized abbreviation or acronym, or the chemical formula or structure. A mixture will list ingredients including concentrations.
Risk assessments must be completed for all tasks involving the use of hazardous chemicals and/or dangerous goods in accordance with the University WHS Risk Management Program.
The risk assessment process for tasks involving hazardous chemicals and dangerous goods will include the following steps:
- reviewing the SDS for the substances involved to identify the nature and severity of potential health effects and/or the potential for dangerous reactions, fire, explosion etc.
- considering the proposed work process including the work environment (eg. space, ventilation), quantities of the substances used, the practical experience of the person carrying out the work and the number of people affected by the work.
- identifying the possible routes of exposure; the likelihood of exposure; the likelihood of a dangerous reaction, fire, explosion occurring during the work process; and the associated risk factors.
- where necessary, implement additional risk controls to reduce the risk of exposure or incident.
The following range of risk controls are listed in priority order and are commonly referred to as the “Hierarchy of Controls”:
- eliminate or outsource hazardous tasks if the risks outweigh the potential benefits.
- substitute the chemical with a less hazardous chemical. If this is not possible investigate use of the chemical in a less hazardous form (eg. pellets instead of powder or gel instead of liquid) or use a safer process (eg. purifying solvents by filtration rather than distillation).
- isolate the hazard by using a closed system or separating workers by distance.
- use engineering controls including fume cupboards and local exhaust ventilation.
- minimise the volume or concentration of chemicals used.
- establish safe work practices including restricted access, good housekeeping, preparation for emergencies and documented safe work procedures for frequently performed or high risk tasks.
- provide appropriate training and supervision.
- wear appropriate personal protective equipment.
Procedures for frequently performed or medium or higher risk tasks involving hazardous chemicals must be established. These procedures must be based on the outcome of a completed risk assessment and are referred to as the Safe Work Procedure (SWP) for that task. The SWP must be documented and communicated within the workgroup.
Safe Work Procedures should provide a best practice approach to undertaking a task and are an ideal way to provide consistent training to new staff and students. A SWP should be available to all those undertaking the task and be regularly reviewed.
Only staff and students with a legitimate need should have access to chemicals. Unauthorised access and activities must be prevented. Basic security controls include:
- ensuring that the perimeters to all areas where chemicals are used or stored are secured (by key or swipe card reader) whenever unattended by staff.
- keep the entrance doors to laboratories, workshops and studios closed, even when in use.
- display the University standard “Authorised entry only” signage at the entrances to facilities where chemicals are used.
- politely challenge strangers – “Can I help you?”.
- keep a regular inventory of all chemicals, biological agents and equipment.
All staff and students who work with chemicals must be provided with the following training:
- General instruction on how to read a Safety Data Sheet and identify hazardous chemicals and dangerous goods. New research staff and student are encouraged to attend specific Working with Chemicals Training.
- Specific information about the chemicals they will be working with, i.e. review of the relevant SDS and risk assessment.
- Specific on the job training in the tasks to be performed including demonstration of the work to be performed and direct (face to face) supervision until they are deemed competent in the process. Achievement of competence should be documented and ongoing general supervision must also be provided.
The personal protective equipment and clothing used when working with chemicals will vary dependant on the chemicals being handled, the tasks being carried out and the facilities being used. The minimum equipment and clothing standards for work with chemicals are:
- enclosed/covered shoes made of non-absorbent material with a non-slip sole.
- safety glasses or goggles.
- disposable gloves which are chemically resistant.
- laboratory coat or gown made of a fire retardant material.
Each workgroup that uses chemicals must be prepared to:
- quickly shut-down equipment or processes so that they can be safely left unattended in the event of a building evacuation.
- provide appropriate first aid treatment in response to chemical exposures. Refer to the SDS for guidance.
- respond to chemical spills and other dangerous events including fire.
Key laboratory and workshop staff from each area are encouraged to attend first attack fire fighting training.