RADIATION & LASER SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
The ultimate aim when working with any source of radiation is to minimise the doses that staff receive. This is what is known as the ALARA principle - keeping doses "As Low As Reasonably Achievable".
This guidance is designed for Heads of Schools, Disciplines, Units, Chief Investigators and all research staff where ionising radiation is uesd. It is also applicable to all research students.
Heads of Schools, Departments, Disciplines or Units must ensure that legislative requirements are complied with in their area. Each area needs to appoint a local radiation safety officer who can monitor the use of radioactive material in their area.
Radiation Safety Committee
The Radiation Safety Committee [RSC] is responsible for overseeing the safe use of ionizing radiation within the University. The committee consists of a cross section of persons from laboratories, representative of the applications of radiation conducted throughout the University.
The current members of the committee are:
- Prof. Brendan Kennedy [Chairman] - Chemistry
- Dr William Ryder - Medical Radiation Sciences
- Dr Robin Bell - Veterinary Science
- Dr Brett Church - Pharmacy
- Dr Nick Coleman - Molecular Bioscience
- Dr Vera Richardson - Pathology
- Dr Ian Garthwaite - Charles Perkins Centre
- Mr Tejay Sener [Secretary] - Radiation Safety Officer
Table of Contents
- Radiation Information Sheets
- User Licence
- Management Licence
- Waste disposal
- Warning signs
- Relevant Standards
- Roles & Responsibilities
- Laser - Legislation
- Laser Pointers
The following information sheets on radiation safety have been produced by the RSC to assist researchers using sources of radiation:
- EPA Licensing
- The Radiation Safety Committee [RSC]
- Local Radiation Safety Responsibilities
- Risk Assessments for Projects Involving Ionizing Radiation
- New Project - Requirements
- Radiation Laboratories - Exit Information Sheet
- Legacy Source - Repository Rules
- Equipment Disposal – From Radiation Laboratories
- End of Research Project - Information Sheet
- Scintillation Counters - Disposal Information Sheet
- SPring8 - Requirements
- Laser Pointer Usage
- Disposal of Scintillaion Liquid
- Personal Monitoring
- Thyroid Monitoring
Projects involving ionizing radiation
All projects involving ionizing radiation should have a risk assessment completed prior to the commencement of any work.
Completion of a Radiation Project Approval which includes a basic risk assessment is a mandatory requirement for all new research grant projects involving the use of ionizing radiation. These projects will be assessed by the Radiation Safety Committee.
The possession and use of radioactive material and irradiating apparatus [regulated material] in NSW is governed by the Radiation Control Act 1990, Radiation Control Amendment Act 2010 & Radiation Control Regulation 2013 administered by the Environment Protection Authority [EPA].
This legislation requires licences for the posession and use of regulated material.
The University will require Radiation Management Licence for the material it posesses and researchers and staff using radioactive material or X-ray equipment will require a Radiation User Licence.
The University Management Licence will replace the need for Registration of Laboratories and X-Ray equipment.
The Radiation Control Act requires persons who use radioactive material or irradiating apparatus to possess a user license.
Further information including a licence application form can be obtained from the EPA Radiation licensing web page.
In the University situation, any student working with unsealed isotpes under supervision is exempt from licensing. However this exemption is only valid if they are supervised by licenced staff member with a "supervision" condition on their licence.
A licence to use radioactive material is not required for isotope activities below certain prescribed levels. For example a licence is not required to use H-3 below 40 MBq. For activities of other isotopes refer to Schedule 1 of the Radiation Control Regulation 2013 .
Other exemptions from licensing exist and are listed in Schedule 4 of the Regulation.
From 1 July 2013 the Radiation Control Regulations 2013 requires the University to posess a radiation Management Licence.
This new licence type replaces the need to register individual laboratories, X-ray apparatus and devices containing radioactive material.
The University will have to ensure that all laboratories, X-ray apparatus and sealed source devices covered under this licence comply with the conditions of their previous registration.
The University requires all persons working with radioisotopes to attend a radiation safety training course. The training course is provided free of charge to staff and students.
Courses usually commence in the week before the start of each semester and are advertised through the University Staff News and via the local safety officers network.
Course details and enrollment are accessed via CareerPath, click onto Work Health and Safety, then Radiation Safety.
The course is an accepted by the EPA as a qualifiaction to obtain a radiation licence to use isotopes for research purposes.
Similar radiation safety courses are available from ANSTO, on a user pay basis.
The Radiation Safety Committee determined that staff should attend a half day refresher course if they have not recieved training in the previous 5 years. These sessions will be run in house on an as required basis.
Only low activity radioactive material can be disposed of through the University's Hazardous Waste disposal service. To meet this "low level" requirement the Specific Activity of material must be below 100 Bq/gm.
Requests for Radioactive Waste Disposal can be made through Campus Assist. The following link gives details of the collection schedule and links to the manifest template. An additional <100Bq/gm Clearance form must be completed and accompany the request.
Radioactive waste that does not meet the <100Bq/gm requirement must be stored until it decays to that level. Isotopes such as P-32, S-35 & I-125 may require storage for up to a year until it decays to an acceptable level.
Longer half life isotopes such as H-3 & C-14 will not effectively decay and require long term storage.
In either situation it is the research group's responsibility to provide for the secure storage of this waste.
For new proposed research projects the amount of radioactive waste generated should be identified in a Radiation Project Clearance. If there is no disposal path for the radioactive waste generated, the project should be re-assessed with the aim of minimising the amount of waste generated.
Area hazard signs with a radiation warning symbol must be displayed at or near the entrance to radiation laboratories. A template for Authorised Only Entry signs and guidguidelines for its use are provided so that laboratories can design individual signs for their specific areas.
Under the Radiation Control legislation, certain conditions are attached to licences. The following Australian Standards are referred to in some conditions and as such compliance with the relevant sections is mandatory.
The two Standards are:
- AS2243.4-1998: Safety in Laboratories - Part 4 - Ionizing Radiations
- AS 2982:2010: Laboratory design & construction
Australian Standard AS 2243.4 provides details about general safety requirements for laboratories where sources of radiation are used or kept.
Australain Standard AS 2982.1 provides details of the design criteria for radioisotope laboratories.
These and other Standards can be accessed on library on line web site.
WHS Responsibilities provide guidance for the management of Workplace Health & Safety.
The Radiation Safety Committee provides additional guidance for specific Local Radiation Responsibilities. The assignment of these roles is left to the discretion of individual Heads of Departments.
Lasers are sources of Non-ionising radiation, that can emit "light" in the visible, Ultraviolet or Infrared parts of the spectrum. They differ from other sources of light in that they produce a high intensity, well collimated, low divergence beam with little loss of power over long distances. Because of these properties, exposure to the direct, reflected or even scattered beam can result in serious damage to the eyes or skin.
In addition to the laser light hazard, high power research lasers can have associated hazards, such as high voltages, cryogenic coolants, production of toxic vapours and the risk of starting fires.
The aim of this guideline is to provide guidance on eliminating the risks associated with the use of high power Class 3B & 4 lasers in the University and permit researchers to fulfil their WHS Responsibilities.
This guideline applies to all users of Class 3B & 4 lasers in the University. Because of the diversity of laser applications used in research, the goal of this guide is to provide a framework for a laser safety program rather than prescriptive requirements. It is up to each research group to conduct individual risk assessments and develop safe operating procedures for their lasers.
Unlike sources of ionising radiation, laser equipment is not regulated under Radiation Control Act. and there is no regulatory requirement for users of high power research lasers to be licenced to use the equipment.
However safety requirements are enforcable under the general provisions of WH&S legislation, which can call up any relevant Australian Standard on Laser Safety.
The primary document is AS/NZS IEC 60825.14 Safety of Laser Products Part 14: A Users Guide.
The Radiation Safety Committee requires all users of laser equipment to follow AS/NZS IEC 60825.14 and associated Laser Standards. This Standard uses a 3 stage process for assessing the risk and implementing control measures.
Standards can be accessed through the library on line web page.
When assessing risks of working with research lasers, a Class 3B laser is potentially hazardous if either the direct or specularly reflected beam is viewed by the unprotected eye. Class 4 lasers can cause injury from exposure not only to the direct or specularly reflected beam but also from diffuse reflections. This must be kept in mind during the risk assessment & control measures process.
Following an increasing amount of incidents involving the misuse of laser pointers in public areas, NSW legislation was implemented to control the use of laser pointers. Effective from December 2008, only laser products with a maximum power output of 1 milli-watt [mW] should be used as laser pointers. Laser pointers exceeding 1 mW require a Laser Pointer Permit from the Police Department.
The Radiation Safety Committee therefore recommends that only laser pointers not exceeding 1mW should be used for teaching purposes. Pointers have their power output stated on the warning label. If a pointer has no classification or warning label, it should not be used.
The University Radiation Safety Officer further advises that any laser pointer with a power output exceeding 5mW MUST NOT be used in the classroom or lecture theatre. Many “Green light” laser pointers are intended for use in astronomy and exceed the 5 mW level. The safety requirements for this class of laser can NOT be complied with in a lecture theatre situation.