Successful students can demonstrate to the examiners that they have a detailed and comprehensive knowledge of the practical aspects of the basic ophthalmic sciences. Particular emphasis is placed on the topics of Anatomy, Physiology and Optics. The advanced material covered provides the students with an opportunity to explore the subject in greater depth fullfilling the requirements for a post-graduate level qualification. On completion of this unit of study, students are expected to understand and perform the following objectives at a competent level relevant for the practice of clinical ophthalmology: (1) describe the anatomy, relations, vascular and nerve supply and functions of structures within the head and neck, orbit, eye and neuroanatomical structures, (2) correctly identify structures of the above on: a) anatomical dissections, bone specimens and neuroanatomical slices, b) anatomical diagrams / pictures / pots, c) radiographic images including ultrasound, Xray, CT and MRI /MRA scanning, Angiography, d) Ophthalmic investigations including anterior segment and fundus photography, OCT scanning, confocal imaging, fluorescein and ICG angiography, (3) describe and identify on histologic slides and images the features of normal anatomy of the eye, orbit, nervous system and head and neck structures, (4) describe and identify the features, timing of events and function of embryologic slides or images of the eye and developing embryo, (5) describe physiologic functioning of the human eye and nervous system. Specific objectives include: a) corneal cell physiology, corneal storage techniques and media types, b) lens physiology and recent advances in lens development and signaling pathways, c) intraocular pressure physiology with understanding of methods of taking IOP, limitations and benefits of each, d) physiology of the retina and optic nerve including phototransduction, cell communication pathways and electrophysiology, e) Physiology of pupil control and identification of conditions that cause pupil disorders and (6) correctly describe, conduct, outline indications, discuss the physiologic basis, interpret results, recognize limitations using the following modailities: a) confocal microscopy, b) OCT scanning of the anterior segment and retina, c) ultrasound testing including A-scan, B-scan and ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM), d) fundus photography including fluorescein and ICG angiography, wide field imaging and autofluorescence, e) electophysiologic testing including ERG, VEP, MF-ERG, MF-VEP, Dark adaptometry, EOG, f) colour vision testing including Ishihara charts, City University charts, FM100 and FM15 tests, occupational tests, g) visual field testing including Goldmann fields, confrontation testing, Humphrey field testing, other automated perimetry testing, MF-VEP testing, h) biometry including A-scan and IOL Master, i) Visual Acuity testing including Snellen chart, ETDRS chart, LogMAR charts, Near vision testing, children's acuity tests, j) contrast sensitivity testing including Pelli-Robson charts, k) IOP measurement using Glodmann tonometry, I-care, Tonopen, l) stereopsis testing including titmus fly, Langs 1 and 2 etc, m) Accommodation testing including RAF rule etc, (7) describe the physical, physiological and geometric optics of light and its application to the human eye, (8) perform, describe the optical principles, application and limitations of the following: a) prescribing of contact lenses, b) entopic phenomena and their basis, c) hand neutralization of lenses, d) telescopes - Galilean and Keplerian, e) Hess chart testing, f) orthoptic tests, g) Low vision aids, h) pin-holes, i) prisms, j) stenopaeic slit, (9) Correctly use ophthalmic instruments and describe their optical properties. These include: a) direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, b) keratometers including B and L, Javal-Schiotz, orbscan, pentacam, IOL Master, c) retinoscopy, d) subjective refraction including duochrome testing, e) Maddox wing and Maddox rod, f) slit lamp and all investigations which can be performed by this machine. Included is ability to identify all features precisely and be able to identify causes for why it is not operational, g) laser speckle optometer, h) lensmeter, (10) describe laboratory methods used in the investigation of normal eye and cellular physiology and the principles of scientific research and reasoning, (11) c onduct research into a specific allocated topic and present to the group your findings. The aim of this task is to: a) demonstrate ability to perform research and a literature review, b) ability to work within a group and allocate specific tasks to work efficiently, c) ability to communicate effectively and use scientific language correctly, d) utilize resources at the Save Sight Institute, Sydney Eye Hospital Library, University of Sydney online library and internet sites to conduct your research, e) summarize your findings and importance of the topic to ophthalmology.
Intensive on campus
: 3 hours observed structured practical exams (90%) and a presentation on an allocated topic (10%)
The textbooks recommended for OPSC5001, OPSC5002 and OPSC5003 apply to this unit. An anatomical atlas is recommended for assistance with the head and neck and neuroanatomy. Recommended Texts: Colour Atlas of Anatomy, JW Rohen and C Yokochi, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins Publishers, 5th Ed, 2002, Neuroanatomy: An Atlas of Structures, Sections and Systems, DE Haines, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 4th Ed, 2000, Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinal Diseases, M Cozzi et al, 2016.
Undergraduate knowledge of physics relating to light and optics.
OPSC5001, OPSC5002, OPSC5003Co-requisites
OPSC5002 or OPSC5003