Aims: To understand the way the control of ventilation is affected by the normal sleep cycle; to understand the relationship between the anatomy and physiology of the airways and the mechanics of ventilation during sleep; to introduce the physiological basis for pathologies of ventilation during sleep, especially OSA and central apnoeas. Content: Breathing During Sleep: The changes in spontaneous breathing during sleep and how this differs between REM and NREM sleep are reviewed. The mechanisms underlying these changes are also discussed. Anatomy and Physiology of the Upper Airway During Sleep: The upper airway and in particular the pharynx is particularly involved in the pathogenesis of OSA. The anatomy of the area and the control of muscles that are important for maintenance of airway patency are reviewed in this module. Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea-Hypopnoea: In this section, the physiology of snoring and OSA will be discussed in terms of its physiological determinants, occurrence and polysomnographic identification. The treatment of these conditions will be introduced. Central Apnoea: The physiology, occurrence and identification of central apnoea will be discussed with the clinical significance.
~2 hours online lectures over 1 semester plus directed reading and independent study
1xonline quiz (40%), 1xexam (60%)