student profile: Mr William Infante


Thesis work

Thesis title: Stochastic Approaches in Developing Business Models and Strategies for Electric Vehicle Battery Swapping Stations

Supervisors: Jin MA , Yan XU

Thesis abstract:

With the influx of electric vehicles, rise of renewable energy sources, and increased deregulation in the electricity market, aggregators such as battery swapping stations (BSS) with sustainable operational strategies and business models are needed to resolve problems caused by these substantial changes and still benefit the relevant stakeholders: battery swapping station owners, electric vehicle customers, and grid operators. There are attempts to create strategies and models for swapping stations, but unfortunately, there is still no comprehensive model that addresses the stochasticity inherent in the design and the inclusion of relevant stakeholders’ decisions. This research aims to present practical yet comprehensive BSS operational strategies and business models. Depending on the data availability and computing power, our methodology explored the lifecycle costs and stakeholder reviews using time-sequence Monte Carlo approach, two-stage optimization techniques and distributed optimization. Example two-stage techniques involve optimization with recourse, bilevel programming with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker reformulation, and bi-objective optimization. Aggregated EV batteries in station act as a form of distributed energy storage supporting more intermittent renewable energy sources and reduced peak loads. For the pragmatic implementation, electric vehicle station visit forecasting strategies were also developed ranging from Gaussian, Poisson, and previous visit dependency techniques depending on the available information and estimated computational complexity of the system. Research has shown how policies for battery swapping station operational strategies and models can be developed considering the vehicle forecasts, stochasticity in the swapping design, and relation of the BSS with other stakeholders.

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