Ben Oldroyd

Grafted queen bee cells


Due to copyright restrictions, please email if you would like a copy of any of these articles. View my publications on Google Scholar.


  • Beeler S., Wong G., Zheng J., Bush E., Remnant E. J., Oldroyd B. P. & Drewell R. A. (2014) Whole genome DNA methylation profile of the jewel wasp (Nasonia vitripennis). 3G: Genes, Genomes , Genetics 4, 383-388.
  • Drewell R. A., Bush E. C., Remnant E. J., Wong G. T., Beeler S. M., Stringham J. L., Lim J. & Oldroyd B. P. (2014) The dynamic DNA methylation cycle from egg to sperm in the honey bee Apis mellifera. Development 141, 2702-011.
  • Francisco F. d., Santiago L. R., Brito R. M., Oldroyd B. P. & Arias M. C. (2014) Hybridization and asymmetrical introgression between Tetragonisca angustula and Tetragonisca fiebrigi. Apidologie 45, 1-9.
  • Goudie F. & Oldroyd B. P. (2014) Thelytoky in the honey bee. Apidologie 45, 306-26.
    Holmes M. J., Tan K., Wang Z., Oldroyd B. P. & Beekman M. (2014b) Why acquiece? Worker reproductive parasitism in the Eastern honeybee (Apis cerana). J. Evol. Biol. 27, 939-49.
  • Makinson J. C., Schaerf T. M., Rattanawannee A., Oldroyd B. P. & Beekman M. (2014) Consensus building in giant Asian honeybee, Apis dorsata, swarms on the move. Anim. Behav. 93, 191-9.
  • Remnant E. J., Koetz A., Tan K., Hinson E., Beekman M. & Oldroyd B. P. (2014) Reproductive interference between honey bee species in Australia and China Mol. Ecol. 23, 1096-107.
  • Roth K. M., Beekman M., Allsopp M. H., Goudie F., Wossler T. C. & Oldroyd B. P. (2014) Cheating workers with large activated ovaries avoid risky foraging. Behav. Ecol. 25, 668-74.
  • Goudie F, Allsopp MH, Oldroyd BP (2014) Selection on overdominant genes maintains heterozygosity along multiple chromosomes in a clonal lineage of honey bee. Evolution 68:125-136
  • Oldroyd BP, Allsopp MH, Roth KM, Remnant EJ, Drewell RA, Beekman M (2014) A parent-of-origin-effect on honeybee worker ovary size. Proc R Soc Lond B 281:20132388
  • Tan K, Latty T, Hu Z, Wang Z, Yang S, Chen W, Oldroyd BP (2014) Preferences and tradeoffs in nectar temperature and nectar concentration in the Asian hive bee Apis cerana. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 68:13-20


  • Arundel J, Oldroyd BP, Winter S (2013) Modelling estimates of honey bee (Apis spp.) colony density from drones. Ecological Modelling 267:1-10
  • Holmes MJ, Oldroyd BP, Duncan M, Allsopp MH, Beekman M (2013) Cheaters sometimes prosper: targeted worker reproduction in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies during swarming. Mol Ecol 22:4298-4306
  • Lee GM, Brown MJF, Oldroyd BP (2013) Inbred and outbred honey bees (Apis mellifera) have similar innate immune responses. Ins Soc 60:97-102
  • Lee GM, McGee PA, Oldroyd BP (2013b) Variable virulence among strains of Ascosphaera apis: testing the parasite-pathogen hypothesis for the evolution of polyandry in social insects. Naturwissenschaften 100:229-234
  • Oldroyd BP (2013) Social evolution: Policing without genetic conflict. Curr Biol 23:R208-209
  • Oldroyd BP, Allsopp MH, Roth KM, Remnant EJ, Drewell RA, Beekman M (2014) A parent-of-origin-effect on honeybee worker ovary size. Proc R Soc Lond B 281:20132388
  • Rinderer TE, Oldroyd BP, Frake AM, deGuzman LI, Bourgeois AL (2013) Responses to Varroa destructor and Nosema ceranae by several commercial strains of Australian and North American honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Aust J Entomol 51:156-163
  • Tan K, Wang Z, Chen W, Hu Z, Oldroyd BP (2013) The 'I see you' prey-predator signal of Apis cerana is innate. Naturwissenschaften 100 :245-248
  • Holmes MJ, Tan K, Wang Z, Oldroyd BP, Beekman M (2013) Honeybee (Apis cerana) guards do not discriminate between robbers and reproductive parasites. Insectes Sociaux 60(2): 265-271. DOI:10.1007/s00040-013-0292-8
  • Rattanawannee A, Chanchao C, Lim J, Wongsiri S, Oldroyd BP (2013) Genetic structure of a giant honey bee (Apis dorsata) population in northern Thailand: implications for conservation. Insect Conservation and Diversity 6(1): 38-44. DOI:10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00193.x


  • Tan K, Yang S, Wang ZW, Radloff SE, Oldroyd BP (2012) Differences in foraging and broodnest temperature in the honey bees Apis cerana and A. mellifera. Apidologie 43 (6): 618-623. DOI:10.1007/s13592-012-0136-y.
  • Bourgeois AL, Rinderer TE, Sylvester HA, Holloway B, Oldroyd BP (2012) Patterns of Apis mellifera infestation by Nosema ceranae support the parasite hypothesis for the evolution of extreme polyandry in eusocial insects. Apidologie 43 (5): 539-548. DOI:10.1007/s13592-012-0121-5.
  • Rattanawannee A, Chanchao C, Wongsiri S, Oldroyd BP (2012) No evidence that habitat disturbance affects mating frequency in the giant honey bee Apis dorsata. Apidologie 43 (6): 761-770. DOI:10.1007/s13592-012-0150-0.
  • Tan K, Wang Z, Yang M, Fuchs S, Luo L, Zhang Z, li H, Zhuang D, Yang S, Tautz J, Beekman M & Oldroyd BP 2012 Honeybees (Apis cerana) modulate dance communication in response to nectar toxicity and demand. Animal Behaviour 84: 1589-1594.
  • Goudie F, Allsopp MH, Beekman M, Lim J & Oldroyd BP (2012) Heritability of worker ovary number in the Cape honeybee Apis mellifera capensis. Insectes Sociaux 59(3): 351-359.
  • Oldroyd BP (2012) Domestication of honey bees was associated with expansion of genetic diversity. Molecular Ecology 21(18): 4409 - 4411.
  • Beekman M, Allsopp MH, Lim J, Goudie F & Oldroyd BP (2012) Response to Reproductive biology of the Cape honeybee: A critique of Beekman et al. by Pirk et al. Journal of Heredity 103: 614-615.
  • Brito, RM, Schaerf, TM, Myerscough, MR, Heard, TA & Oldroyd BP (2012) Brood comb construction by the stingless bees Tetragonula hockingsi and Tetragonula carbonaria. Swarm Intelligence 6: 151-176
  • Drewell, RA, Lo, N, Oxley, PR & Oldroyd BP (2012) Kin conflict in insect societies: a new epigenetic perspective. Trends Ecol. Evol. 27, 367-373. (10.1016/j.tree.2012.02.005)
  • Goudie, F, Beekman, M, Allsopp, MH & Oldroyd, BP (2012) Maintenance and loss of heterozygosity in a thelytokous lineage of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Evolution 66, 1897-1906. (10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01543.x. )
  • Beekman M, Allsopp MH, Holmes MJ, Lim J, Noach-Pienaar L-A, Wossler TC & Oldroyd BP (2012) Racial mixing in South African honeybees: the effects of genotype mixing on reproductive traits of workers. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 66: 897-904.
  • Vergoz V, Lim J, and Oldroyd BP (2012) "Biogenic amine receptor gene expression in the ovarian tissue of the honey bee Apis mellifera". Insect Molecular Biology 21 (1):21-29.
  • Tan K, Wang Z, Li H, Yang S, Hub Z, Kastberger G, and Oldroyd BP (2012) "An 'I see you' prey-epredator signal between the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana, and the hornet, Vespa velutina". Animal Behaivour 83:879-882.


  • Oldroyd, B. P. & Mayo, O. 2011 Rossiter Henry Crozier 1943-2009. Historical Records of Australian Science 22, 80-103.
  • Nanork, P., Low, P. A., Proft, K. M., Lim, J., Deowanish, S., Wongsiri, S. & Oldroyd, B. P. 2011 Actual reproductive conflict during emergency queen rearing in Apis florea. Apidologie 42, 206-210. (DOI: 10.1051/apido/2010052)
  • Holmes, M. J., Allsopp, M. H., Noach-Pienaar, L.-A., Wossler, T. C., Oldroyd, B. P. & Beekman, M. 2011 Sperm utilization in South African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis). Apidologie 42, 23-28.
  • Beekman M, Allsopp MH, Lim J, Goudie F, and Oldroyd BP (2011) "Asexually produced Cape honeybee queens (Apis mellifera capensis) reproduce sexually." Journal of Heredity 102 (5):562-566
  • Makinson JC, Oldroyd BP, Schaerf TM, Wattanachaiyingchareon W, Beekman M (2011) Moving home: nest site selection in the Red Dwarf honeybee (Apis florea). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65 (5):945-958
  • Boomsma JJ, Beekman M, Cornwallis CK , Griffin AS, Holman L, Hughes WOH, Keller L, Oldroyd BP & Ratnieks FLW. (2011) Only full-sibling families evolved eusociality. Nature 471:E4-E5 doi:10.1038/nature09832
  • Oldroyd B, Allsopp MH, Lim J, Beekman M (2011) A thelytokous lineage of socially parasitic honey bees has retained heterozygosity despite at least 10 years of inbreeding. Evolution 65-3: 860 - 868


  • Lo, N, Beekman M & Oldroyd BP (2010) Caste in social insects: genetic influences over caste determination. Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior. M. D. Breed and J. Moore (eds). Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1: 254-260.
  • Allsopp MH, Beekman M, Gloag RS, Oldroyd BP (2010) Maternity of replacement queens in the thelytokous Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 64:567-574
  • Brito RM, McHale M, Oldroyd BP (2010) Expression of genes related to reproduction and pollen foraging in honey bees (Apis mellifera) narcotized with carbon dioxide. Insect Molecular Biology 19:451–461
  • Brito RM, Oldroyd BP (2010) A scientific note on a simple method for karyotyping honey bee (Apis mellifera) eggs. Apidologie 41: 178-180
  • Chapman NC, Higgs JS, Wattanachaiyingcharoen W, Beekman M, Oldroyd BP (2010) Worker reproductive parasitism in naturally orphaned colonies of the Asian red dwarf honey bee, Apis florae. Insectes Sociaux 57:163-167
  • Higgs JS, McHale M, Oldroyd BP (2010) A scientific note on a rapid method for the molecular discrimination of Apis andreniformis and A. florae. Apidologie 41:96-98
  • Holmes MJ, Allsopp MH, Noach-Pienaar L-A, Wossler TC, Oldroyd BP, Beekman M (2010) Sperm utilization in South African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata and A. m. capensis). Apidologie 42: 23-28
  • Holmes MJ, Oldroyd BP, Allsopp MH, Lim J, Wossler TC, Beekman M (2010) Maternity of emergency queens in the Cape honey bee, Apis mellifera capensis. Molecular Ecology 19:2792–2799
  • Lo N, Gloag RS, Anderson DL, Oldroyd BP (2010) A molecular phylogeny of the genus Apis suggests that the giant honey bees of the Philippines, A. breviligula Maa and the Plains honey bees of southern India, A. indica Fabricius are valid species. Systematic Entomology 35:226-238
  • Oxley PR, Hinhumpatch P, Gloag RS, Oldroyd BP (2010) Genetic evaluation of a Novel System for controlled mating of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Journal of Heredity 101(3): 334-338
  • Oxley PR, Spivak M, Oldroyd BP (2010b) QTLs for hygienic behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera) influence likelihood of engaging in task and propensity to engage in specific task components. Molecular Ecology 19:1452-1461
  • Schwander T, Lo N, Beekman M, Oldroyd BP, Keller L (2010) Nature versus nurture in social insect caste differentiation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 25:275-282
  • Wongvilas S, Higgs JS, Beekman M, Wattanachaiyingcharoen W, Deowanish S, Oldroyd B (2010) Lack of inter-specific parasitism between the dwarf honeybees Apis andreniformis and A. florae. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 64:1165-1170
  • Wongvilas S, Higgs JS, Deowanish S, Oldroyd BP (2010) Interspecific and conspecific colony mergers in the dwarf honey bees Apis andreniformis and A. florae. Insectes Sociaux 57:251-255
  • Michael J. Holmes, Benjamin P. Oldroyd, Michael H. Allsopp, Julianne Lim, Theresa C. Wossler, and Madeleine Beekman (2010). "Maternity of emergency queens in the Cape honey bee, Apis mellifera capensis." Molecular Ecology 19: 2792-2799.
  • Schwander T, Lo N, Beekman M, Oldroyd BP & Keller L 2010. Nature versus nurture in social insect caste differentiation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25: 275-282
  • Chapman NC, Higgs JS, Wattanachaiyingcharoen W, Beekman M & Oldroyd BP 2010. Worker reproductive parasitism in naturally orphaned colonies of the Asias red dwarf honey bee, Apis florea. Insectes Sociaux 57: 163-167
  • Chapman NC, Beekman M & Oldroyd BP 2010. Worker reproductive parasitism and drift in the western honeybee Apis mellifera. Behavioral Ecology and Sciobiology 64: 419-427.
  • Allsopp MH, Beekman M, Gloag RS, Oldroyd BP (2010) Maternity of replacement queens in the thelytokous Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 64: 567-574.


  • Chapman NC, Makinson J, Beekman M & Oldroyd BP (2009) Honeybee (Apis mellifera) guards use adaptive acceptance thresholds to limit worker reproductive parasitism. Animal Behaviour 78: 1205-1211.
  • Tan K, Yang M, Radloff S, Pirk, CWW, Crewe RM, Phiancharoen M, Hepburn R and Oldroyd BP (2009). Worker reproduction in mixed-species colonies of honey bees. Behavioral Ecology doi:10.1093/beheco/arp103.
  • Shafir S, Kabanoff L, Duncan M, and Oldroyd BP (2009). Honey bee (Apis mellifera) sperm competition in vitro - two are no less viable than one. Apidologie 40: 556-561.
  • Oxley PR, Oldroyd BP (2009). Mitochondrial Sequencing Reveals Five Separate Origins of 'Black' Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Eastern Australian Commercial Colonies. Journal Economic Entomology 102(2): 480-484.
  • Higgs JS, Wattanachaiyingcharoen W, Oldroyd BP (2009). A scientific note on a genetically-determined color morph of the dwarf honey bee, Apis andreniformis. Apidologie 40: 513-514.
  • Oldroyd BP & Beekman M. (2009) Intergenerational reproductive parasitism in a stingless bee. Molecular Ecology 18: 3958-3960.
  • Oldroyd BP, Nanork P (2009) Conservation of Asian honey bees. Apidologie 40: 296-312
  • Chapman NC, Nanork P, Gloag RS, Wattanachaiyingcharoen W, Beekman M & Oldroyd BP. (2009) Queenless honey bee (Apis florea) colonies are infiltrated by workers from other queenless nests. Behavioral Ecology: 20: 817-820.
  • Beekman, M., M. H. Allsopp, L. A. Jordan, J. Lim, and B. P. Oldroyd. (2009) A quantitative study of worker reproduction in queenright colonies of the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis. Molecular Ecology 18:2722-2727.
  • Chapman N.C., Beekman M., Oldroyd BP (2009) Several workers lay eggs in the same brood cell in queenless honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, Insectes Sociaux 56: 103-105.


  • Oxley PR, Thompson GJ, Oldroyd BP (2008) Four QTL influence worker sterility in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) Genetics 179:1337-1343.
  • Thompson GJ, Kucharski R, Maleszka R, Oldroyd BP (2008) Genome-wide analysis of genes related to ovary activation in worker honey bees. Insect Molecular Biology 17:657-665.
  • Wattanachaiyingcharoen W, Wongsiri S, Oldroyd BP (2008) Aggregations of unrelated Apis florea colonies. Apidologie 39:531-536.
  • Chapman NC, Nanork P, Reddy MS, Bhat NS, Beekman M, Oldroyd BP (2008b) Nestmate recognition by guards of the Asian hive bee Apis cerana. Insectes Sociaux 55: 382-386.
  • Oldroyd BP, Allsopp MH, Gloag RS, Lim J, Jordan LA and Beekman M. (2008) Thelytokous parthenogenesis in unmated queen honey bees (Apis mellifera capensis): central fusion and high recombination rates. Genetics 180:359-366.
  • Gloag, RS, Beekman M, Heard TA & Oldroyd BP. (2008) Nest defence in a stingless bee: What causes fighting swarms in Trigona carbonaria (Hymenoptera: Meliponini)? Insectes Sociaux: 55: 387-391.
  • Oldroyd BP, Fewell, JH (2008) Large fitness benefits from polyandry in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23:59-60.
  • Hughes, WOH, Ratnieks, FLW & Oldroyd BP. (2008) Multiple paternity or multiple queens: two routes to greater intracolonial genetic diversity in the eusocial Hymenoptera. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21:1090-1095
  • Oldroyd BP, Gloag RS, Even N, Wattanachaiyingcharoen W, & Beekman M. (2008) Nest-site selection in the open-nesting honey bee Apis florea. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 62:1643-1653.
  • Beekman M & Oldroyd BP . (2008) Who is the Queen's mother? Royal cheats in social insects. Journal of Biosciences 32:159-161.
  • Jordan LA, Allsopp MH, Beekman M, Wossler TC & Oldroyd BP. (2008) Inheritance of traits associated with reproductive potential in Apis mellifera capensis and A. m. scutellata workers. Journal of Heredity 99:376-381.
  • Hughes WOH, Oldroyd BP, Beekman M & Ratnieks FLW. (2008) Ancestral monogamy shows kin selection is key to the evolution of eusociality. Science 320:1213-1216.
  • Chapman NC, Lim J & Oldroyd BP. (2008) Population genetics of commercial and feral honey bees in Western Australia. Journal of Economic Entomology 101:272-277.
  • Beekman M, Gloag RS, Even N, Wattanachaiyingcharoen W. & Oldroyd BP. (2008) Dance precision of Apis florea - clues to the evolution of the honey bee dance language? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 62:1259-1265.
  • Oldroyd BP & Beekman M. (2008) Effects of selection for honey bee worker reproduction on foraging traits. PLoS Biology: 6: e56. Doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060056.
  • Jordan L.A., Allsopp M.H., Oldroyd BP, Wossler T.C. & Beekman M. (2008) Cheating workers produce royal offspring. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 275:345-351.
  • Beekman, M. & BP Oldroyd. (2008) When workers disunite: Intra-specific parasitism in eusocial bees. Annual Review of Entomology 53:19-37.
  • Gloag RS, Heard TA, Beekman M, Oldroyd BP. (2008) No worker reproduction in the Australian stingless bee, Trigona carbonaria Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Insectes Sociaux 54: 412-417.
  • Beekman M., Allsopp M.H., Wossler T.C. & BP Oldroyd. (2008) Factors affecting the dynamics of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) hybrid zone in South Africa. Heredity 100:13-18.


  • Jordan L.A., Allsopp M.H., Oldroyd BP, Wossler T.C. & Beekman M. (2007) A scientific note on the drone flight time of Apis mellifera capensis and A. m. scutellata. Apidologie 38:436-437.
  • Thompson G.J., Yockey H., Lim J., BP Oldroyd. (2007) Experimental manipulation of ovary activation and gene expression in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens and workers: testing hypotheses of reproductive regulation. Journal of Experimental Zoololgy 307A:1-11.
  • Beekman, M., Martin, S.J., Drijfhout, F. & BP Oldroyd. (2007). Higher removal rate of eggs laid by anarchistic queens - a cost of anarchy? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61:1847-1853.
  • Nanork, P., Wongsiri, S. & BP Oldroyd. (2007). Preservation and loss of the honey bee (Apis) egg-marking signal across evolutionary time. Behavioral Ecology Sociobiology 61:1509-1514.
  • Oldroyd BP (2007) What's killing American Honey Bees? PLoS Biology 5:1195-1199.
  • Oldroyd BP & J.H. Fewell. (2007) Genetic diversity promotes homeostasis in insect colonies. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22: 408-413. (Due to copyright restrictions, please email Ben for copy)
  • Chapman, N.C., Oldroyd BP & W.O.H. Hughes. (2007) Differential responses of honeybee (Apis mellifera) patrilines to changes in stimuli for the generalist tasks of nursing and foraging. Behavioral Ecology Sociobiology 61:1185-1194.
  • Quezada-Euan, JJ. G., Paxton, R.J., Palmer, K.A., Itza, W. de J.M., Tay, W.T., & Oldroyd BP (2007) Morphological and molecular characters reveal differentiation in a Neotropical social bee, Melipona beecheii (Apidae: Meliponini) Apidologie 38: 1-12.
  • Nanork, P., Chapman, N.C., Wongsiri, S.,Lim, J., Gloag, R.S., & Oldroyd BP (2007) Social parasitism by workers in queenless and queenright Apis cerana colonies. Molecular Ecology 16: 1107-1114. Due to copyright restrictions, please email Ben for a copy.
  • Jones, J.C. & Oldroyd BP (2007) Nest thermoregulation in social insects. Advances in Insect Physiology. 33: 153-191.
  • Oldroyd BP & Thompson, G.J. (2007) Behavioural genetics of the honey bee Apis mellifera. Advances in Insect Physiology 33: 1-49.


  • Oldroyd BP, Reddy, M.S., Chapman, N.C., Thompson, GJ & M Beekman. (2006) Evidence for reproductive isolation between two colour morphs of cavity nesting honey bees (Apis) in south India. Insectes Sociaux 53:429-434.
  • Thompson, G.J., Kucharski, R. Maleszka, R. & Oldroyd BP (2006) Towards a molecular definition of worker sterility: differential gene expression and reproductive plasticity in honey bees. Insect Molecular Biology. 15:637–644.
  • Nanork, P., Wongsiri, S. & Oldroyd BP (2006) The reproductive dilemmas of queenless red dwarf honeybee (Apis florea) workers. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 61: 91-97
  • Holleley, C.E., Dickman, C.R., Crowther, M.S. & Oldroyd BP (2006) Size breeds success: multiple paternity, multivariate selection and male semelparity in a small marsupial, Antechinus stuartii. Molecular Ecology 15:3439-3448.
  • Graham, S., Myerscough, M.R., Jones, J.C. & Oldroyd BP (2006) Modelling the role of intracolonial genetic diversity on regulation of brood temperature in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. Insectes Sociaux 53:226-232.


  • Koywiwattrakul, P., Thompson, GJ., Sitthipraneed, S., Oldroyd BP. & R. Maleszka. (2005) Effects of carbon dioxide narcosis on ovary activation amd gene expression in worker honeybees, Apis mellifera. Journal of Insect Science 5:36.
  • Nanork, P., Paar, J., Chapman, N.C., Wongsiri, S. & Oldroyd BP (2005) Asian honeybees parasitize the future dead. Nature 437:829.
  • Hoover, S.E.R., Winston, M.L. & Oldroyd BP (2005) Retinue attraction and ovary activation: responses of wild type and anarchistic honey bees (Apis mellifera) to queen and brood pheromones. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 59:278-284.
  • Jones J, Helliwell,P, Beekman M, Maleska R & Oldroyd, BP (2005) The effects of rearing temperature on developmental stability and learning and memory in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 191:1121-1129
  • Beekman M, Doyen, L. & Oldroyd BP (2005) Decrease in dance imprecision with increasing foraging distance in the honey bee Apis mellifera L. is partly explained by physical constraints. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 191:1107-1113
  • Hoover, S.E.R., Oldroyd BP, Wossler, T.C. & M.L. Winston. (2005) Anarchistic queen honey bees have normal queen mandibular pheromones. Insectes Sociaux 52:6 -10.
  • Beekman M & Oldroyd BP (2005) Honey bee workers use cues other than egg viability for policing. Biology Letters 1(2):129-132.


  • Thompson, G.J., & Oldroyd BP (2004) Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the origin of eusociality in corbiculate bees. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33:452-456.
  • Beekman M, Martin C.G. & Oldroyd BP (2004) Similar policing rates of eggs laid by virgin and mated honey-bee queens. Naturwissenschaften 91:598-601.
  • Paar, J., Oldroyd BP, Huettinger, E. & G. Kastberger. (2004) Levels of polyandry in Apis laboriosa Smith from Nepal. Insectes Sociaux 51:212-214
  • Martin, S.J., Chaline, N., Oldroyd BP, Jones, G.R. & F.L.W. Ratnieks. (2004) Egg marking pheromones of anarchistic worker honeybees (Apis mellifera). Behav. Ecol. 15: 839-844
  • Jones, J.C., Myerscough, M.R., Graham, S. & BP Oldroyd. (2004) Honey Bee nest thermoregulation: Diversity promotes stability. Science 305:402-404.
  • Cameron, E.C., Franck, P. & B. P. Oldroyd. (2004) Genetic structure of nest aggregations and drone congregations of the southeastern Asian stingless bee Trigona collina. Mol. Ecol. 13:2357-2364
  • Franck, P., Cameron, E., Good, G., Rasplus, J-Y. & BP Oldroyd. (2004) Nest architecture and genetic differentiation in a species comples of Australian stingless bees. Mol. Ecol. 13: 2317-2331
  • Paar, J., Oldroyd BP, Huettinger, E. & G. Kastberger. (2004) Genetic Structure of an Apis dorsata population: The significance of migration and colony aggregation. J. Heredity. 95: 119-126
  • Myerscough, MR & BP Oldroyd. (2004) Simulation models of the role of genetic variability in social insect task allocation. Insect. Soc. 51: 146-152
  • Martin CG, Oldroyd BP & Beekman M. (2004) Differential reproductive success among subfamilies in queenless honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 56:42-49
  • Evans, J.D., Shearman, D.C.A. & BP Oldroyd. (2004) Molecular basis of sex determination in haplodiploids. TREE. 19:1-3
  • Dampney, J.R., Barron, A.B. & BP Oldroyd. (2004) Measuring the cost of worker reproduction in honeybees: work tempo in an 'anarchic' line. Apidologie 35:83-88


  • Beekman, M. & BP Oldroyd. (2003) Different policing rates of eggs laid by queenright and queenless anarchistic honey-bee workers (Apis mellifera L.) Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 54:480-484
  • Palmer, K.A. & BP Oldroyd. (2003) Evidence for intra-colonial genetic variance in resistance to American foulbrood of honey bees (Apis mellifera): further support for the parasite/pathogen hypothesis for the evolution of polyandry. Naturwissenschaften 90:265-268
  • Ashe, A. & BP Oldroyd. (2003) Do queens select sperm? TREE 18:108
  • Halling, LA. & BP. Oldroyd. (2003) Do policing honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers target eggs in drone comb? Insectes Soc. 50: 59-61
  • Beekman, M, Oldroyd BP. & Myerscough MR. (2003) Sticking to their choice - honey bee subfamilies abandon declining food sources at a slow but uniform rate. Ecological Entomology 28(2): 233-236
  • Beekman M & Oldroyd BP.(2003) Effects of cross-feeding anarchistic and wild type honey bees: Anarchistic workers are not queen-like. Naturwissenschaften. 90: 189-192
  • Wattanachaiyingcharoen, W., Oldroyd BP., Wongsiri, S., Palmer, K. & J. Paar. (2003). A scientific note on the mating frequency of Apis dorsata. Apidologie, 34: 85 - 86


  • Rinderer, T.E., Oldroyd, BP, de Guzman, L.I., Wattanachaiyingcharoen, W. & S. Wongsiri. (2002). Spatial distribution of the dwarf honey bees in an agroecosystem in southeastern Thailand. Apidologie. 33: 539-543
  • Paar, J., Oldroyd, BP, Huettinger, E. & G. Kastberger. (2002). Drifting of workers in nest aggregations of the giant honeybee Apis dorsata. Apidologie. 33: 553-561
  • Dampney,J.R., Barron, A.B. & BP Oldroyd. (2002) Policing of adult honey bees with activated ovaries is error prone. Insectes Soc. 49: 270-274
  • Green, C.L., Oldroyd BP (2002) Queen mating frequency and maternity of males in the stingless bee Trigona carbonaria Smith. Ins. Soc. 49: 196-202.
  • Lapidge, KL., Oldroyd BP. & M. Spivak. (2002) Seven suggestive quantitative trait loci influence hygenic behavior of honey bees. Naturwissenschaften 89: 565 - 568.
  • Clarke, K.E., Rinderer, T.E., Franck, P., Quezada-Euan, J.G. & BP Oldroyd. (2002) The Africanization of Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) of the Yucatan: A study of a massive hybridisation event across time. Evolution. 56: 1462 - 1474.
  • Johnson RN, Oldroyd BP, Barron AB, Crozier RH (2002) Genetic control of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) dance language: Segregating dance forms in a backcrossed colony. J. Hered. 93: 170-173.
  • Oldroyd BP (2002) The Cape honey bee: an example of a social cancer. Trends Ecol. Evol. 17(6): 249-251.
  • Wattanachaiyingchareon, W., Oldroyd BP, Good, G., Halling, L.A., Ratnieks, F.L.W. Wongsiri, S. (2002) Lack of worker reproduction in the giant honey bee Apis dorsata Fabricius. Ins. Soc. 49: 80-85.
  • Oldroyd BP, Ratnieks, F.L.W., Wossler T.C. (2002) Egg marking pheromones in honey-bees Apis mellifera, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 51: 590-591.
  • Beekman, M., Calis J.M.N., Oldroyd BP, Ratnieks, F.L.W. (2002) When do honey bee guards reject their former nestmates after swarming? Ins. Soc. 49: 56-61.
  • Palmer, K.A., Oldroyd BP, Quezada-Euan, J.G., Paxton, R.J. and W.D.J. May-Itza (2002) Paternity frequency and maternity of males in some stingless bee species. Molecular Ecology. 11: 2107-2113


  • Oldroyd BP, Halling, L.A., Good, G., Wattanachaiyingcharoen, W., Barron, A.B., Nanork, P., Wongsiri, S., Ratnieks, F.L.W. (2001) Worker policing and worker reproduction in Apis cerana. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 50: 371-377.
  • Palmer, K.A., Oldroyd BP, Franck, P., Hadisoesilo, S. (2001) Very high mating frequency in Apis nigrocincta. Ins. Soc. 48: 327-332.
  • Oldroyd BP, Wossler, T., Ratnieks, FLW (2001) Regulation of ovary activation in worker bees: larval signal production and adult response thresholds differ between anarchistic and wild-type bees. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 50: 366-370.
  • Barron, A.B., Oldroyd BP, Ratnieks, F.L.W. (2001) Worker reproduction in honey-bees (Apis) and the anarchic syndrome. A review. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 50:199-208.
  • Halling, L.A., Oldroyd BP, Wattanachaiyingcharoen W., Barron, A.B., Nanork, P., Wongsiri, S. (2001) Worker policing in Apis florea. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 49:509-513.
  • Green, C.L., Frank, P.,Oldroyd BP (2001) Characterization of microsatellite loci for Trigona carbonaria a stingless bee endemic to Australia. Molec. Ecol. Notes 1: 89-92.
  • Franck, P., Garnery, L., Loiseau. A., Oldroyd BP, Hepburn, H.R., Solignac, M., Cornuet, J-M. (2001) Genetic diversity of the honey bee in Africa: microsatellite and mitochondrial data. Heredity. 86:420-430.
  • Palmer, K.A., Oldroyd BP (2001) Multiple mating in Apis florea revisited. Ins. Soc. 48: 40-43.
  • Barron, A.B., Oldroyd BP (2001) Social regulation of ovary development in 'anarchistic' honeybees (Apis mellifera). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 49: 214-219.
  • Clarke, K.E., Oldroyd BP, Quezada-Euan, J.J.E., Rinderer, T.E. (2001) Origin of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from the Yucatan peninsula inferred from mt-DNA analysis. Molec Ecol. 10: 1347-1355.


  • Paar, J., Oldroyd BP, Kastberger, G. (2000) Giant honeybees return to their nest sites. Nature 206: 475.
  • Palmer, K.A., Oldroyd BP (2000) Evolution of multiple mating in the genus Apis. Apidologie 31: 235-248.
  • Drumond, P.M., Oldroyd BP Osborne, K.E. (2000) Worker reproduction in Austroplebeia australis Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini). Ins. Soc. 47: 333-336.
  • Deowanish, S., Wattanachaiyingcharoen, W., Wongsiri, S., Oldroyd BP, Leepitakrat, S., Rinderer, T.E., Sylvester, H.A. (2000). Biodiversity of dwarf honeybees in Thailand. In Wongsiri, S. (ed) 7th International conference on tropical bees: management and diversity. Chiang Mai.pp 97-103.
  • Drumond, P.M., Zucchi, R., Oldroyd BP (2000) Description of the food provisioning and ovipositioning process of seven species of Plebeia Schwarz (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini), with notes on their phylogeny and taxonomy. Ins. Soc. 47:99-112.
  • Oldroyd BP, Osborne, K.E., Mardan, M. (2000) Colony relatedness in aggregations of Apis dorsata Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Ins. Soc. 47: 94-95.
  • Oldroyd BP, Ratnieks, F.L.W. (2000) Evolution of worker sterility in honey-bees (Apis mellifera): how anarchistic workers evade policing by laying eggs that have low removal rates. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 47: 268-273.
  • Fraser, V.S., Kaufmann, B., Oldroyd BP, Crozier, R.H. (2000) Genetic influence on caste in the ant Camponotus consobrinus. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 47: 188-194.


  • Oldroyd BP, Halling, L., Rinderer, T.E. (1999) Development and behaviour of anarchistic honeybees Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 266: 1875-1878.
  • Osborne, K.E., Oldroyd BP (1999) Possible causes of reproductive dominance during emergency queen rearing by honeybees. Anim. Behav. 58:267-272.
  • Oldroyd BP, Osborne, K.E. (1999) The evolution of worker sterility in honeybees. The genetic basis for failure of worker policing. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 266: 1335-1339.
  • Drumond, P.M., Oldroyd BP, Dollin, A.E., Dollin, L.J. (1999) Oviposition behaviour of two Australian stingless bees, Austroplebeia symei Rayment and Austroplebeia australis Friese (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini). Aust. J. Entomol. 38: 234-241.
  • Hatty, S., Oldroyd BP (1999) Evidence for temperature dependent selection for malate dehydrogenase allele frequencies in honeybee populations. J. Heredity. 90: 565-568.
  • Oldroyd BP (1999) Coevolution while you wait. Varroa jacobsoni, a new parasite of western honeybees. Trends Ecol. Evol. 14: 312-315.


  • Rinderer T.E., Stelzer J.A., Oldroyd BP, Tingek, S. (1998) Levels of polyandry and intracolonial genetic relationships in Apis koschevnikovi. J. Apic. Res. 37: 281-287.
  • Oldroyd BP (1998) Controlling feral honeybee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) populations in Australia: methodologies and costs. J. Aust. Ent. Soc. 37: 97-100.
  • Montague, C.E., Oldroyd BP (1998) The evolution of worker sterility in honeybees: an investigation into a behavioral mutant causing failure of worker policing. Evolution 52: 1408-1415.
  • Oldroyd BP, Clifton, M.J., Parker, K., Wongsiri, S., Rinderer, T.E., Crozier, R.H. (1998) Evolution of mating behavior in the genus Apis and an estimate of mating frequency in Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 91: 700-709.
  • Chen, P.P., Wongsiri, S., Jamyanya, T., Rinderer, T.E., Vongsamanode, S., Matsuka, M., Sylvester, H.A., Oldroyd BP (1998) Honeybees and other edible insects used as human food in Thailand. Americ. Ent. 44: 24-29.


  • Oldroyd BP, Clifton, M.J., Wongsiri, S., Rinderer, T.E., Crozier, R.H. (1997) Polyandry in the genus Apis, particularly Apis andreniformis. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 40: 17-26.
  • Tilley, C.A., Oldroyd BP (1997) Unequal representation of subfamilies among queen and worker brood of queenless honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies. Anim. Behav. 54: 1483-1490.
  • Rowe, D.J., Rinderer, T.E., Stelzer, J.A., Oldroyd BP, Crozier, R.H. (1997) Seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in honeybees (Apis mellifera). Ins. Soc. 44: 85-93.
  • Oldroyd BP, Thexton, E.G, Lawler, S.H, Crozier, R.H. (1997) Population demography of the feral bees (Apis mellifera) of Wyperfeld National Park, Victoria, Australia. Oecologia 111: 381-387.
  • Crozier, R.H., Oldroyd BP, Tay, W.T., Kaufmann, B.E., Johnson, R.N., Carew, M.E., Jennings, K.M. (1997) Molecular advances in understanding social insect population structure. Electrophoresis 18: 1672-1675.


  • Rinderer, T. E., Wongsiri, S., Kuang, B. Lui, J., Oldroyd, B. P., Sylvester, H. A., deGuzman, L. (1996) Comparative nest architecture of the dwarf honey bees. J. Apic. Res. 35:19-26.
  • Clarke, G.M. and Oldroyd BP (1996) The genetic basis of developmental stability in Apis mellifera. II. Relationships between character size, asymmetry and single-locus heterozygosity. Genetica. 97: 211-224.
  • Wongsiri, S., Lekprayoon, C., Thapa, R., Thirakupt, K., Rinderer, T.E., Sylvester, H.A., Oldroyd BP, Booncham, U. (1996) Comparative biology of Apis andreniformis and Apis florea in Thailand. Bee World 77: 23-35.
  • Oldroyd BP (1996) Evaluation of Australian commercial honey bees for hygienic behaviour, a critical character for tolerance to chalkbrood. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 73: 116-117.
  • Oldroyd BP, Smolenski, A.J., Cornuet, J-M., Wongsiri, S., Estoup, A. Rinderer, T.E., Crozier, R.H. (1996) Levels of polyandry and intracolonial genetic relationships in Apis dorsata (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 89: 276-283.
  • Hornitzky, M.A.Z., Oldroyd BP, Somerville, D. (1996) Bacillus larvae carrier status of swarms and feral colonies of honeybees (Apis mellifera) in Australia. Aust. Vet. J. 73: 116-117.


  • Rinderer, T.E., Oldroyd BP, Wongsiri, S., Sylvester, H.A., deGuzman, L.I., Stelzer, J.A., Riggio, R.M. (1995) A morphological comparison of the dwarf honey bees of southeastern Thailand and Palawan, Philippines. Apidologie 26: 387-394.
  • Cornuet, J-M., Oldroyd BP, Crozier, R.H. (1995) Unequal thermostability of allelic forms of malate dehydrogenase in honey bees. J. Apic. Res. 34: 45-47.
  • Oldroyd BP, Smolenski, A.J., Cornuet, J-M, Wongsiri, S., Estoup, A., Rinderer, T.E., Crozier, R.H. (1995). Levels of polyandry and intracolonial genetic relationships in Apis florea. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 37: 329-335.
  • Garnery, L. Mosshine, E.H., Oldroyd BP, Cornuet, J.-M. (1995) Mitochondrial DNA variation in Moroccan and Spanish honey bee populations. Molecular Ecology 4 465-471.
  • Oldroyd BP, Smolenski, A., Estoup, A., Crozier, R.H. (1995) Colony aggregations in Apis. Apidologie 26 : 119-130.
  • Oldroyd BP, Cornuet, J-M., Rowe, D., Rinderer, T.E., Crozier, R.H. (1995) Racial admixture of honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Tasmania, Australia. Similarities and differences with natural hybrid zones in Europe. Heredity 74 : 315-325.
  • Lawler, S., Oldroyd BP, Noelker, F., Crozier, R.H. (1995) Potential for hollow competition with feral honey bees. In G.C. Grigg, P.T. Hale and D. Lunney (eds) Conservation through Sustainable Use of Wildlife. Center for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland pp. 276-281.


  • Rinderer, T.E., Oldroyd BP, Leprayoon, C., Wongsiri, S., Boonthai, C., Thapa, R. (1994) Extended survival of the parasitic honey bee mite Tropilaelaps clareae on adult workers of Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata. J. Apic. Res. 33 : 171-174.
  • Oldroyd BP, Smolenski, A.J., Cornuet, J-M., Crozier, R.H. (1994) Anarchy in the beehive: a failure of worker policing in Apis mellifera. Nature 371 : 479.
  • Oldroyd BP, Lawler, S.H., Crozier, R.H. (1994) Do feral honey bees (Apis mellifera) and regent parrots (Poltelis anthopeplus) compete for nest sites? Aust. J. Ecol. 19 : 444-450.
  • Oldroyd BP, Rinderer, T.E., Schwenke, J., and Buco, S.M. (1994) Subfamily recognition and task specialization in the honey bee Apis mellifera. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 34 : 169-173.
  • Oldroyd BP, Sylvester, H.A., Wongsiri, S., and Rinderer, T.E. (1994) Task specialisation in a wild bee Apis florea (Hymenoptera: Apidae) revealed by DNA fingerprinting. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 34 : 25-30.


  • Rinderer, T.E., Oldroyd BP, Wongsiri, S., Sylvester, H.A., Potichot, S., Sheppard, W.S. and Buckman, S. (1993) Time of drone flight of four honey bee species in south eastern Thailand. J. Apic. Res. 32 : 27-33.
  • Rinderer, T.E., Oldroyd BP, Buco, S.M. (1993) Subspecific hybridisation between populations of Apis mellifera in the neotropics. In Conner, L.J. et al. (eds) Asian Apiculture Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Asian Honeybees and Bee Mites. Wicwas Press, Chesire, Connecticut. pp 137-147.
  • Oldroyd BP, Rinderer, T.E. and Buco, S.M. (1993) Genetic variance in honey bees for preferred foraging distance. Anim. Behav. 45 : 323-332.
  • Oldroyd BP, Sheppard, W.S. and Stelzer, J.A. (1993) Genetic characterisation of the bees of Kangaroo Island, South Australia. J. Apic. Res. 31: 141-148.
  • Rinderer, T.E., Oldroyd BP, Sheppard W.S. (1993) Africanized bees in the U.S. Sci. Am. 269 : 52-58.


  • Oldroyd BP, Rinderer, T. E. and Wongsiri, S. (1992) Pollen resource partitioning by Apis dorsata, A. cerana, A. andreniformis and A. florea in Thailand. J. Apic. Res. 31 : 3-7.
  • Rinderer, T.E., Oldroyd BP, Sylvester, H.A., Wongsiri, S. and deGuzman, L. (1992) Evolution of bee dances. Nature 360 : 305.
  • Oldroyd BP, Rinderer, T.E., Harbo, J.R., and Buco, S.M. (1992) Effects of genetic diversity on honey bee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colony performance. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 85 : 335-343.
  • Clarke, G.M., Oldroyd BP and Hunt, P.J. (1992) The genetic basis of developmental stability: heterozygosity versus genic balance. Evolution 46 : 753-762.
  • Oldroyd BP, Rinderer, T.E. and Buco, S.M. (1992) Intra-colonial genetic specialism by honey bee (Apis mellifera) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foragers. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 30 : 291-295.


  • Oldroyd BP, Rinderer, T.E., Buco, S.M. (1991) Intracolonial variance in honey bee foraging behaviour: the effects of sucrose concentration. J. Apic. Res. 30: 137-145.
  • Rinderer, T.E., Stelzer, J.A., Oldroyd BP, Buco, S.M. and Rubink, W.L. (1991) Hybridization between European and Africanized honey bees in the neotropical Yucatan peninsula. Science 253: 309-311.
  • Oldroyd BP, Rinderer, T.E. and Buco, S.M. (1991). Heritability of morphological characters used to distinguish European and Africanized bees. Theoret. Appl. Genet . 82: 499-504.
  • Oldroyd BP, Rinderer, T.E. and Buco, S.M. (1991). Honey bees dance with their super sisters. Anim. Behav. 42: 121-129.


  • Goodman, R.D., Williams, P., Oldroyd BP and Hoffman, J. (1990). Studies on the use of phosphine gas for the control of wax moth (Galleria mellonella) in stored honey bee comb. Am. Bee J. 130: 473-477.
  • Oldroyd BP, Rinderer, T.E. and Buco, S.M. (1990). Nepotism in the honey bee. Nature 346: 706-708.
  • Oldroyd BP and Hunt, P. (1990). The effects of additional queens on honey bee colony performance. Apidologie 21: 527 -536.
  • Oldroyd BP and Goodman, R.D. (1990). On the relative importance of queens and workers to honey production. Apidologie 21: 153-159.
  • Oldroyd BP, Goodman, R.D., Hornitzky, M.A.Z. and Chandler, D. (1989). The effect on American foulbrood of standard oxytetracycline hydrochloride treatments for the control of European foulbrood of honeybees (Apis mellifera). Aust. J. Agric. Res. 40: 691-697.
  • Goodman, R.D. and Oldroyd BP (1988). Honey bee pollination of strawberries (Frageria x Ananassa Duchesne). Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 28: 435-438.
  • Oldroyd BP and Reinganum, C. (1988). The effectiveness of prophylactic sterilisation of beehive equipment by gamma irradiation. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 28: 809-811.
  • Oldroyd BP and Goodman, R.D. (1988). Inbreeding and heterosis in queen bees in relation to brood area and honey production. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 39: 959-964.
  • Oldroyd BP (1988) Are queens or workers more important to honey production? In G.R. Needham, R.E. Page, M. Delfinado-Baker, C.E. Bowman (eds) Africanized Honey Bees and Bee Mites. Ellis Horwood, Berkshire.
  • Oldroyd BP and Moran, C. (1987). Additive and heterotic genetic effects in the haplo-diploid Apis mellifera. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 40: 57-63.
  • McLaren, D., Oldroyd BP and Goodman, R. (1987). Comparative toxicity of microencapsulated and emulsified concentrate of methyl parathion to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Am. Bee J. 127: 718-720.
  • Oldroyd BP, Moran, C. and Nicholas, F.W. (1987). Diallel crosses of honey bees. II. A note presenting the heritability of honey production under Australian conditions. Aust. J. Agric. Res . 38: 651-654.
  • McLaren, D., Oldroyd BP and Goodman, R. (1986). A novel method of determining microencapsulated pesticide pick-up by honey bees (Apis mellifera). Am. Bee J. 26:796-797.
  • Oldroyd BP, Moran, C. and Nicholas, F.W. (1985). Diallel crosses of honeybees. I. A genetic analysis of honey production using a fixed effects model. J. Apic. Res .24: 243-249.
  • Oldroyd BP and Moran, C. (1983). Heritability of worker characters in the honey bee. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 36: 323-332.