Dr Tim Heard - Honorary Associate

A photo of Tim Heard

Biographical details

I worked as a research scientist for CSIRO from 1990 to 2014 in the discipline of biological control of weeds. I have since returned to an interest in wild bees formed during my doctoral studies at the University of Queensland in the 1980s.

Research Interests

My interests centre around the stingless bees taxonomic group. I have been involved in many aspects of research from pure studies on their basic biology to applied work on their utilization for economic purposes. I am an entomologist who works across disciplines to answer questions such as how to utilize stingless bees for crop pollination.


Selected publications

2016

Tim Heard book cover

The Australian Native Bee Book, keeping stingless bee hives for pets, pollination and sugarbag honey by Tim Heard

  • Heard, T.A. (2016) The Australian Native Bee Book, keeping stingless bee hives for pets, pollination and sugarbag honey. Sugarbag Bees, Brisbane.
  • Kaluza, B. F., H. Wallace, T. A. Heard, A.-M. Klein and S. D. Leonhardt (2016a). "Urban gardens promote bee foraging over natural habitats and plantations." Ecology and Evolution: doi: 10.1002/ece1003.1941.
  • Leonhardt S.D., Kaluza B.F. Wallace H, Heard T.A. (2016) Resources or landmarks: Which factors drive homing success in Tetragonula carbonaria foraging in natural and disturbed landscapes? Journal of Comparative Physiology A 202:701-8. doi: 10.1007/s00359-016-1100-5.
  • Smith, J. P., Heard, T. A., Gloag R. & Beekman M. (2016) Flight range of the Australian stingless bee, Tetragonula carbonaria (Hymenoptera, Apidae) Austral Entomology, doi: 10.1111/aen.12206.
  • Hausmann, A., Chainey, J., Heard, T.A., Fernando McKay, F., Raghu, S. (2016) Revision of the genus Eueupithecia Prout, 1910 from Argentina (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Sterrhinae) Zootaxa (in press).
  • Heard, T. (2016) How Australia’s stingless bees cam to be. Wildlife Australia Autumn 2016 pp 26-27.

2015

  • Massaro CF, Smyth TJ, Smyth WF, Heard T, Leonhardt SD, Katouli M, Wallace HM and Brooks P. (2015) Phloroglucinols from Anti-Microbial Deposit-Resins of Australian Stingless Bees (Tetragonula carbonaria). Phytotherapy Research 29: 48–58.

2014

  • Massaro, C., Katouli, M., Grkovic, T., Vu, H., Quinn, R. J., Heard, T. A., Carvalho, C., Manley-Harris, M., Wallace, H., & Brooks, P. (2014). Anti-staphylococcal activity of C-methyl flavanones from propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria) and fruit resins of Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae). Fitoterapia, 95, 247-257.
  • Cunningham J. P., Hereward J. P., Heard T.A., De Barro P.J. & West S.A. (2014) Bees at War: interspecific battles and nest usurpation in stingless bees. American Naturalist 184(6): 777-786. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/678399.
  • Nunes T.M., Heard T.A., Venturieri G. and Oldroyd B. (2014) Emergency queens in Tetragonula carbonaria (Smith ,1854) (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini). Austral Entomology, DOI: 10.1111/aen.12104.
  • Bell, K.L. Heard, T.A. Manion, G., Ferrier, S. and van Klinken, R.D. (2014) Characterizing the phytophagous arthropod fauna of a single host plant species: survey completeness through time and space. Biodiversity and Conservation DOI 10.1007/s10531-014-0758-7.
  • Heard, T.A., Fichera, G. and Zonneveld, R. (2014) Megamelus scutellaris, a biocontrol agent of water hyacinth, is not sufficiently specific for release in Australia. BioControl Science and Technology 24: 554-560.
  • Mc Kay, F; Sosa A J. & Heard TA. (2014) Bionomics of Neolasioptera aculeatae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a promising biological control candidate against Parkinsonia aculeata (Leguminosae). Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 73: 19-25.
  • Leonhardt SD, Heard TA, Wallace H (2014) Differences in the resource intake of two sympatric Australian stingless bee species. Apidologie 45: 514–527. DOI: 10.1007/s13592-013-0266-x.

2013

  • Bell, K.L. Heard, T.A., Manion, G., Ferrier, S. and van Klinken, R.D. (2013) The role of geography and environment in species turnover: phytophagous arthropods on a Neotropical legume. Journal of Biogeography 40: 1755-1766.
  • Halcroft M., Spooner-Hart R, Haigh AM, Heard TA and Dollin A 2013. The Australian stingless bee industry: a follow-up survey, one decade on. Journal of Apicultural Research 52: 1-7.
  • Campbell, S., Heard, T., Galea V. and van Klinken, R.D. (2013) Where do we stand with weeds from a research perspective? Proceedings of the Northern Beef Research Update Conference, Cairns Australia, 13-15 August 2013. pp. 43-48. Northern Beef Research Council, Gympie.
  • Palmer B., Heard T.A., Duffield B. and Senaratne W. (2013) Australia’s newest quarantine for weed biocontrol. In Proceedings of the XIII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds 14-19

2012

  • Heard, T.A., Mira, A., Fichera, G. and Segura, R. (2012) Nesaecrepida infuscata: a biological control agent of the invasive plant Mimosa pigra. BioControl 57: 573-580.
  • Brito R.M., Schaerf T.M., Myerscough M.R., Heard T.A., Oldroyd, B.P. (2012) Brood comb construction by the stingless bees Tetragonula hockingsi and Tetragonula carbonaria. Swarm Intelligence 6: 151-176.
  • Heard, T.A. (2012) Mimosa pigra. In Biological control of weeds in Australia (Eds. M Julien, R McFadyen and J Cullen), pp. 378-397. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
  • van Klinken R.D., Heard, T.A., (2012) Parkinsonia aculeata. In Biological control of weeds in Australia (Eds. M Julien, R McFadyen and J Cullen), pp. 437-447. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
  • Heard, T.A. and Segura, R. (2012) Argemone mexicana L. and Argemone ochroleuca Sweet – Mexican poppy. In Biological control of weeds in Australia (Eds. M Julien, R McFadyen and J Cullen), pp. 65-72. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
  • Heard, T.A., Dhileepan, K., Bebawi F., Bell, K. Segura, R. (2012) Jatropha gossypiifolia L. – bellyache bush. In Biological control of weeds in Australia (Eds. M Julien, R McFadyen and J Cullen), pp. 324-333. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
  • Heard, T.A. and Day, M.D. (2012) Sida acuta Burm.f - spinyhead sida, Sida rhombifolia L. - paddy’s lucerne and Sida cordifolia L. - flannel weed. In Biological control of weeds in Australia (Eds. M Julien, R McFadyen and J Cullen), pp. 544-550. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

2011

  • Gagné, R.J., Mc Kay, F. and Heard T.A. (2011) A new species of Neolasioptera (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) from Parkinsonia aculeata (Leguminosae) in Argentina for possible use in biological control in Australia, with a key to Neotropical species of Neolasioptera. ZooTaxa 2866: 61-68.
  • Bell, K.L., Heard, T.A. and van Klinken, R.D. (2011) Natural enemies of invasive Hymenachne amplexicaulis and its native congener in Australia and the potential for biological control. Biological Control 57: 130-137.
  • Brown, J.W., Segura, R., Santiago-Jimenez, Q., Rota, J. and Heard, T.A. (2011) Leaf-roller moths (Tortricidae) reared from the invasive weed Mexican palo verde (Parkinsonia aculeata), with comments on their host specificity, biology, geographic distribution and systematics. Journal of Insect Science Vol. 11 Article 7.
  • Heard, T. (2011) Australian native stingless bees – recent research on a species with a variety of potential commercial applications. Queensland Entomological Society News Bulletin. 39: 26-28.

2010

  • Diaz, R., Overholt W.A., Heard T.A., Samayoa, A. & Van Klinken, R.D.. (2010) Characterizing the host-specificity of Ischnodemus variegatus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Blissidae) on two congeneric grass species. Biological Control 55: 219-224.
  • Norgate M, Boyd-Gerny S, Simonov V, Rosa MGP, Heard T.A., and Dyer A.G. (2010) Ambient Temperature Influences Australian Native Stingless Bee (Trigona carbonaria) Preference for Warm Nectar. PLoS ONE 5(8): e12000. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012000.
  • Van Dreische et al (2010) Classical biological control for the protection of natural ecosystems. Biological Control 54: S2-S33.
  • Boorn K.L., Khor Y.-Y., Sweetman E., Tan F., Heard T.A. and Hammer, K.A. (2010) Antimicrobial activity of honey from the stingless bee Trigona carbonaria determined by agar diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and time-kill methodology. Journal of Applied Microbiology 108: 1534-1543.
  • Palmer W.A., Heard T.A. and Sheppard A.S. (2010) A review of Australian classical biological control of weeds programs and research activities over the past 12 years. Biological Control, 52: 271-287.

2009

  • van Klinken, R.D., Campbell S.D., Heard, T.A. McKenzie J. and March N. (2009) The Biology of Australian Weeds Parkinsonia aculeata L. Plant Protection Quarterly 24: 100-117.
  • Heard, T.A., Chan, R.R., Wilmot Senaratne, K.A.D., Palmer, W.A., Lockett C. and Lukitsch B. (2009) Agonosoma trilineatum (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae) a biological control agent of the weed bellyache bush, Jatropha gossypiifolia (Euphorbiaceae). Biological Control 48: 196-203.
  • Bebawi, FF, Vitelli, J, Campbell, SD, Vogler, WD, Lockett, CJ, Grace, BS, Lukitsch, B & Heard, TA 2009, 'Jatropha gossypiifolia L.’, in FD Panetta (ed), The biology of Australian weeds: volume 3, RG and FJ Richardson, Melbourne, pp. 102–127.
  • Heard, T.A. and Paynter, Q. (2009) Mimosa pigra (Leguminosae). In Biological Control of Tropical Weeds using Arthropods, ed. R. Muniappan, G. V. P. Reddy, and A. Raman, pp. 256-273. Cambridge University Press.

2008

  • Oddo, L P; Heard, T A; Rodriguez-Malaver, A; Perez, R A; Fernandez-Muino, M; Sancho, M T; Sesta, G; Lusco, L; Vit, P (2008) Composition and antioxidant activity of Trigona carbonaria honey from Australia. Journal of Medicinal Food 11: 789-784.
  • Irish J., Heard T. A., Carter DA, Blair SE. (2008) Antibacterial activity of honey from the Australian stingless bee Trigona carbonaria. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 32: 89-90.
  • Gloag, R. S., Heard, T. A., Beekman, M. B., Oldroyd, B. P. (2008) Nest defence in a stingless bee: What causes fighting swarms in Trigona carbonaria (Hymenoptera: Meliponini)? Insectes Sociaux 55: 387-391.

2007

  • Gloag, R. S., Beekman, M. B., Heard, T. A., Oldroyd, B. P. (2007) No worker reproduction in the Australian stingless bee, Trigona carbonaria Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Insectes Sociaux 15: 412-417.
  • Bebawi, F.F., Vitelli J.S., Campbell S.D., Vogler W.D., Lockett C.J., Grace B.S., Lukitsch B. and Heard T.A. (2007) The biology of Australian weeds 47. Jatropha gossypiifolia L. Plant Protection Quarterly 22: 42-58.
  • Taylor, D. B.J., Heard, T.A., Paynter, Q. Spafford-Jacob, H. (2007) Non-target Impact of a Weed Biological Control Agent on a Native Plant in Northern Australia. Biological Control 42: 25-33.
  • De Clerck-Floate R, Hinz HL, Heard T, Julien M, Wardill, T., Cook, C. (2008) Preliminary results on the role of arthropod rearing in classical weed biological control. In Proceedings of the XII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (eds Julien, M.H., Sforza, R., Bon, M.C., Evans, H.C., Hatcher, P.E., Hinz, H.L. & Rector, B.G.), pp. 528-534. CAB International Wallingford, UK.
  • Lawson, BE, van Klinken, R.D., Day, MD, Heard TA and Zalucki MP. (2008) Improving the agent selection, release and evaluation process: the role of bioclimatic modelling. Proceedings of the 16th Australian Weeds Conference, eds R.D. van Klinken, V.A. Osten, F.D. Panetta and J.C. Scanlan. (Queensland Weeds Society, Brisbane), pp. 510-512.
  • Lawrence L. and Heard, T. (2007) A new biological control agent for the weed Mimosa pigra in Australia's northern wetlands. Outlooks on Pest Management, April 2007: 52-53.
  • Heard T.A. & Paynter Q. (2007) Evaluating Lessons from Mimosa Biocontrol in Australia. CABI Biocontrol News& Information 28: 9-11.
  • Heard, T.A. (2007) The CSIRO Mexican Field Station. Entomological Society of Queensland News Bulletin. 33: 148-150.

2006

  • Vit P; Rodr'guez-Malaver A; Almeida D; Almeida Souza B; Carlos Marchini L; Fernández D'az C; Esther Tricio A; Khan Villas-Bôas J; Heard, TA. (2006) A scientific event to promote knowledge regarding honey from stingless bees: 1. physical-chemical composition. Magistra 18: 270-276.
  • Souza BA, Roubik DW, Barth OM, Heard TA, Enriquez E, Carvalho CAL, Villas-Bôas JK, Marchini LC, Locatelli JC, Persano-Oddo L, Almeida-Muradian, LB, Bogdanov S. Vit P, (2006) Composition of stingless bee honey: setting quality standards. Interciencia 31: 857-875.
  • Cortopassi-Laurino, M., Imperatriz-Fonseca, V.L. Roubik, D.W., Dollin, A., Heard, T., Bengoa Aguilar, I., Venturieri, G.C., Eardley, C., Nogueira-Neto P. (2006) Global Meliponiculture: challenges and opportunities. Apidologie 37: 275-292.
  • Heard, T.A. (2006) Parkinsonia aculeata: surveys for natural enemies, native range ecological studies, and prospects for biological control. Pp. 581-584. Proceedings of the 15th Australian Weeds Conference eds, C. Preston, JH Watts and ND Crossman. Weed management Society of South Australia, Adelaide.

2005

  • Sheppard, A.W., van Klinken R.D. and Heard, T. A. (2005) Scientific advances in the analysis of direct risks of weed biological control agents to non-target plants. Biological Control 35: 215-226.
  • Heard, T.A., Pettit, W. (2005) A review of the surveys for natural enemies of Mimosa pigra: what does it tell us about surveys for broadly distributed hosts? Biological Control 34: 247-254.
  • Heard, T.A.; Paynter, Q.; Chan, R. and Mira, A. (2005) Malacorhinus irregularis for biological control of Mimosa pigra: host specificity, life cycle, and establishment in Australia. Biological Control 32: 252-262.
  • Heard, T.A. (2006) Traditional stingless beekeeping in Mexico. Entomological Society of Queensland News Bulletin. 34: 151-154.
  • Lawrence L. and Heard, T. (2005) A small moth to cut the giant sensitive plant down to size in Australia. Outlooks on Pest Management, 16: 69-70.

2004

  • Heard, T.A. and van Klinken, R.D. (2004) Rapid preliminary characterisation of host specificity of leaf-beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). BioControl Science and Technology 14: 499-511.
  • Julien, M; Flanagan, G; Heard, T; Hennecke, B; Paynter, Q; and Wilson, C. (Eds) Research and Management of Mimosa pigra (2004). CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, lia. 173 pp.
  • van Driesche R.G., Heard T. A., McClay, A. and Reardon, R. (Eds) (2000). Host-Specificity Testing of Exotic Arthropod Biological Control Agents: The Biological Basis for Improvement in Safety. Morgantown, USA. USDA Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, FHTET-99-1.
  • Heard T.A. and Segura R. (2004). Agents for biological control of Mimosa pigra in Australia: review and future prospects. Research and Management of Mimosa pigra. (Editors: Julien, M; Flanagan, G; Heard, T; Hennecke, B; Paynter, Q; and Wilson, C.) pp. 126-140. CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia.
  • Heard T.A. (2004). The taxonomy of Mimosa pigra. Research and Management of Mimosa pigra. (Editors: Julien, M; Flanagan, G; Heard, T; Hennecke, B; Paynter, Q; and Wilson, C.) p. 10. CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia.
  • Taylor, D.B.J. Heard T.A. and Spafford Jacob H. (2004) How effective is host testing at predicting non-target impacts of weed biological control agents in Australia? 14th Australian Weeds Conference: Papers and Proceedings: September 2004, Wagga Wagga. pp 91-94.
  • Heard, T.A., Segura, R. and Zonneveld, R and Martinez, M. (2004) Limited success of open field tests to clarify the host range of three species of Lepidoptera of Mimosa pigra. Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (eds Cullen, J.M., Briese, D.T., Kriticos, D.J., Lonsdale, W.M., Morin, L. and Scott, J.K.) pp. 277-282. CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia.
  • Segura R. and Heard, T.A. (2004) The CSIRO Mexican Field Station – history and current activities. Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (eds Cullen, J.M., Briese, D.T., Kriticos, D.J., Lonsdale, W.M., Morin, L. and Scott, J.K.) pp. 145-148. CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia.
  • McClay, A.S., M.D. Crisp, H.C. Evans, T. Heard, R.A. Hufbauer, T.-K. Qin & R. Shaw (2004) Workshop summary Centres of origin: do they exist, can we identify them, does it matter? Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (eds Cullen, J.M., Briese, D.T., Kriticos, D.J., Lonsdale, W.M., Morin, L. and Scott, J.K.) pp. 619-620. CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia.
  • Heard, T (2004) Host specificity testing. Weedwatch Newsletter of the Cooperative Research Centre for Australian Weed Management. Vol 2 (5): p 6.
  • Heard, T., Grace, B. and Grattidge, A. (2004) Mimosa – a choice of weapons is essential. Weedwatch Newsletter of the Cooperative Research Centre for Australian Weed Management. Vol 2 (7): p 7.

2003

  • Paynter, Q., Csurhes, S.M., Heard, T.A., Ireson, J., Julien, M.J, Lloyd, J., Lonsdale, W.M., Palmer, W.A., Sheppard, A.W., and van Klinken, R.D. (2003). Worth the risk? Introduction of legumes can cause more harm than good: an Australian perspective. Australian Systematic Botany Special Issue Biology of Acacia. 'Advances in Legume Systematics Part 11'.
  • Sheppard, A.W. Heard T.A. & Briese D.T. (2003) What is needed to improve the selection, testing and evaluation of weed biological control agents Workshop synthesis and recommendations. In “Improving the selection, testing and evaluation of weed biological control agents” Spafford Jacob H. & Briese D.T. (Eds.) CRC for Australian Weed management Technical Series, No. 7.
  • Briese D.T., Heard T.A., McFadyen R.E., Sheppard, A.W. & Spafford Jacob H. (2003) The selection, testing and evaluation of weed biological control agents: Is there still room for improvement? Workshop synthesis and recommendations. In “Improving the selection, testing and evaluation of weed biological control agents” Spafford Jacob H. & Briese D.T. (Eds.) CRC for Australian Weed management Technical Series, No. 7.
  • Smith, K. and Heard, T (2003) Biological Control of the bellyache bush. Pesticide Outlook 14: 145.
  • Heard, T (2003) Soothing the pain of bellyache bush. Weedwatch Newsletter of the Cooperative Research Centre for Australian Weed Management 2: p 6.
  • Heard, T (2003) Native stingless bees: biology, conservation and economic utilisation. Queensland Entomological Society News Bulletin. 31: 134-141.

2002

  • Cunningham, S.A., Fitzgibbon, F. and Heard T.A. (2002) The future of pollination in Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 53: 893-900.
  • Segura, R., Heard, T.A., Julien, M.J. (2002). Control Biológico de malezas: el proceso. XXV Congresso Nacional de Control Biológico, 14-15 Nov 2002, Hermosillo, México. ISBN: 970-18-9196-1.
  • Heard, T.A., Chan, R.R., Segura R., 2002. Prospects for the biological control of bellyache bush, Jatropha gossypiifolia. In: Spafford Jacob, H., Dodd, J., Moore, J.H. (Eds.), 13th Australian Weeds Conference: Papers and Proceedings. Plant protection Society of Western Australia, Perth, pp. 366-369.
  • Heard, T.A. (2002) Host specificity testing of biocontrol agents of weeds. pp. 21-29. In: Smith, C.W., Denslow, J.E., and Hight, S.D. (eds) Proceedings of a Workshop on Biological Control of Invasive Plants in Native Hawaiian Ecosystems. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Technical Report 129.
  • Heard, T. and Paynter, Q. (2002) Mimosa leaves niche for new agents. Biocontrol news and Information 23: 81N-82N.

2001

  • White, D. Cribb B.W. and Heard, T.A. (2001) Flower constancy of the stingless bee, Trigona carbonaria Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini). Australian Journal of Entomology 40: 61-64.

2000

  • Heard, T.A. and Dollin, A. (2000) Stingless beekeeping in Australia, snapshot of an infant industry. Bee World 82: 116-125.
  • Amano K. Nemoto, T. and Heard T.A. (2000) What are the stingless Bees, and why and how to use them as crop pollinators? - a review. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 34: 183-190.
  • van Klinken, R.D. and Heard, T.A. (2000) Estimating fundamental host-range: a host specificity study of a potential biocontrol agent for Prosopis species (Leguminosae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 10: 331-342.
  • Heard, T.A. and Winterton, S.L. (2000) Interactions between nutrient status and weevil herbivory in the biological control of water hyacinth. Journal of Applied Ecology 37: 117-127.
  • Heard, T.A. (2000) Concepts in host selection behavior and their application to host specificity testing. In van Driesche R.G., Heard T. A., McClay, A. and Reardon, R. Host-Specificity Testing of Exotic Arthropod Biological Control Agents: The Biological Basis for Improvement in Safety. Morgantown, USA. USDA Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, FHTET-99-1, pp 1-10.
  • Heard, T. (2000) Could Aussie stingless bees pollinate avocado? Aussie Bee 15: 20-21.

1999

  • Heard, T.A., Forno, I.W., Burcher (1999) Chalcodermus serripes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for biological control of Mimosa pigra: host relations and life cycle. Biological Control 15: 1-9.
  • Heard, T.A. (1999) The role of stingless bees in crop pollination. Annual Review of Entomology 44: 183-206.
  • Heard, T.A. (1999) Methods for host testing insects which utilise a host marking pheromone or other host discrimination system. In: T.M. Withers, L. Barton Browne & J. Stanley (Eds). Host specificity testing in Australasia: towards improved assays for biological control: pp 34-40. Scientific Publishing Queensland Department of Natural Resources: Brisbane.
  • Heard, T. (1999) Leafcutter bees and crop pollination. Aussie Bee 9: 6-7.
  • Heard, T. (1999) Pollination of mangoes: flies or stingless bees. Aussie Bee 11: 11.

1998

  • Heard, T.A., O’Brien C.W., Forno, I.W. and Burcher, J.A. (1998). Chalcodermus persimilis O'Brien n. sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): description, biology, host range, and suitability for biological control of Mimosa pigra L. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 124: 1-11.
  • Heard, T.A. and van Klinken, R.D. (1998) An analysis of designs for host range determination of insects for biological control of weeds. In: Zalucki, M.P., Drew, R.A.I., White, G.G. (Eds.), Pest Management - Future Challenges, Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian Applied Entomology Research Conference, University of Queensland Printery, Brisbane. Vol 1: 539-546.
  • Heard, T.A. and Dollin A. (1998) Crop pollination with native stingless bees. Native bees of Australia Series, Booklet 6, Australian Native Bee Research Centre: Sydney.
  • Heard, T. (1998) Amegilla native bees and the pollination of cardamom. Aussie Bee 6: 12.
  • Heard, T. (1998) Stingless bees as pollinators of macadamia. Aussie Bee 7: 8.
  • Heard, T. (1998) Carpenter bees and the pollination of passionfruit. Aussie Bee 8: 6-7.

1997

  • McFadyen R. and Heard T. (1997) Decision making based on host range tests. In Biological control of weeds: theory and practical application, ACIAR Monograph No. 49, Julien, M. and White G. (Eds) Pp 71-75. ACIAR: Canberra.
  • Forno W. and Heard T. (1997) Compiling a plant list for testing the host range of agents. In Biological control of weeds: theory and practical application, ACIAR Monograph No. 49, Julien, M. and White G. (Eds) Pp 71-75. ACIAR: Canberra.
  • Heard T. (1997) Host range testing of insects. In Biological control of weeds: theory and practical application, ACIAR Monograph No. 49, Julien, M. and White G. (Eds) Pp 77-82. ACIAR: Canberra.
  • Dollin A. and Heard, T.A. (1997) Beekeeping with native stingless bees in Australia. Native bees of Australia Series, Booklet 5, Australian Native Bee Research Centre: Sydney.

1996

  • Heard, T.A. and Forno, I.W. (1996) Host selection and host range of the flower feeding weevil, Coelocephalapion pigrae, a potential biological control agent against Mimosa pigra. Biological Control 6: 83-95.
  • Heard, T.A. (1996) The stingless bees. Nature Australia Spring 1996 pp. 50-55.

1995

  • Yamane, S., Heard, T.A. and Sakagami, S.F. (1995). Oviposition behaviour of the stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponinae) XVI. Trigona (Tetragonula) carbonaria endemic to Australia, with a highly integrated oviposition process. Japanese Journal of Entomology 63: 275-296.
  • Heard, T.A. (1995) Oviposition and feeding preferences of a flower feeding weevil, Coelocephalapion aculeatum, in relation to con-specific damage to its host-plant. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 76: 203-209.
  • Heard, T.A. (1995) Oviposition preferences and larval performance of a flower feeding weevil, Coelocephalapion aculeatum, in relation to host development. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 76: 195-201.

1994

  • Forno, I.W., Heard, T.A. and Day, M.D. (1994) Host specificity and aspects of the biology of Coelocephalapion aculeatum (Coleoptera: Apionidae), a potential biological control agent of Mimosa pigra. Environmental Entomology 23: 147-153.
  • Heard, T.A. (1994) Behaviour and pollinator efficiency of stingless bees and honey bees on macadamia flowers. Journal of Apicultural Research 33: 191-198.
  • Heard, T.A. and Gardner, M.G. (1994) Comparative studies of development and host utilisation by Calligrapha pantherina on Sida acuta and S. rhombifolia. Biological Control 4: 336-340.
  • Heard, T.A. and Exley, E.M. (1994) Diversity, abundance and distribution of insect visitors to macadamia flowers. Environmental Entomology 23: 91-100.

1993

  • Corcoran, R.J.; Heather, N.W. and Heard, T.A. (1993) Vapor heat treatment for zucchini infested with Bactrocera cucumis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 86: 66-69.
  • Heard, T.A. and Hendrikz, J.K. (1993) Factors influencing flight activity of colonies of the stingless bee, Trigona carbonaria (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 41: 343-353.
  • Heard, T.A. (1993) Pollinator requirements and flowering patterns of Macadamia integrifolia. Australian Journal of Botany 41: 491-497.

1992

  • Heard, T.A.; Heather, N.W. and Peterson, P.M. (1992) Relative tolerance to vapor heat treatment of eggs and larvae of Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mangoes. Journal of Economic Entomology 85: 461-463.

1991

  • Heard, T.A.; Heather, N.W. and Corcoran, R.J. (1991) Dose-mortality relationships for eggs and larvae of Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae) immersed in hot water. Journal of Economic Entomology 84: 1768-1770.

1990

  • Heard, T.A.; Vithanage, V. and Chacko, E.K. (1990) Pollination biology of cashew in the Northern Territory of Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 41: 1101-1114.
  • Heard, T.A., Heather, N.W. and Corcoran, R.J. (1990) Preliminary results of time-mortality relationships for eggs and larvae of Dacus tryoni immersed in hot water. Australian Postharvest Conference, Gosford, NSW, 24-28 July 1989, pp. 178-182.
  • Heather, N.W.; Corcoran, R.J. and Heard, T.A. (1990) Quarantine disinfestation measures for Australian mangoes. Acta Horticulturae.

1988

  • Heard, T.A. (1988) Propagation of hives of Trigona carbonaria. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 27: 303-304.
  • Heard, T.A. (1988) The requirement for insect pollination by macadamia and the relative pollinator efficiency of Trigona bees. Proceedings: Fourth Australian Conference on Tree and Nut Crops Lismore NSW, 14-20 August 1988, pp. 219-221.
  • Heard, T.A. (1988) Establishment and propagation of hives of the stingless bee, Trigona carbonaria. Proceedings of the Second Australian and International beekeeping Congress, pp 114-116.

1986

  • Heard, T.A. (1988) Establishment and propagation of hives of native stingless bees for orchard pollination. Rare Fruits Council of Australia Inc. Newsletter, no. 52 pp 12-14.
  • Heard, T.A. (1988) Establishment and propagation of hives of native stingless bees. Australasian Beekeeper.
  • Heard, T.A. (1988) Establishment and propagation of hives of native stingless bees for pollination of macadamia. Australian Macadamia Society News Bulletin 16 (2): 10-13.