Dr Paul Hick

BVSc (Hons), PhD (University of Sydney), MANZCVS (Epidemiology), Grad Cert (Higher Education)
Senior Lecturer in Veterinary Virology (Aquatic, Farm Animal and Ecosystem Health)

Member of Sydney Institute of Agriculture

C01A - Jl Shute - Camden
The University of Sydney

Telephone +61 2 93511608

Biographical details

Paul is an internationally recognized veterinary virologist specialising in aquatic viruses. Paul’s research program is focussed on reducing the impact of viral diseases in animal production. He has published extensively in the areas of molecular virology and aquatic disease management control.

During his research career, Paul has developed new diagnostic tests for aquatic pathogens that are used in laboratories in Australia and across South East Asia. His research program has enabled improved biosecurity and disease control in fish hatcheries and identified host and environmental risk factors for aquatic disease outbreaks. Paul has played a pivotal role in several national emergency disease outbreaks such as abalone herpesvirus, virulent Kunjin virus, Hendravirus and the first detection of Ostreid herpesvirus 1. Currently, he has followed his passion in researching the epidemiology of OsHV-1 in Pacific oysters since the initial outbreak in Australia.

Research interests

Epidemiologic approaches to investigate and control aquatic animal disease with a focus on viral pathogens that impact aquaculture production and ecosystem health. Aiming to understanding the impact of many host, environment and pathogen risk factors to develop effective disease mitigation strategies.

Development and validation of laboratory tests for infectious diseases with expertise in the correct implementation and interpretation of these tools to provide sound disease investigations and surveillance data.

Teaching and supervision

PhD research supervision

Max de Kantzow. Risk factors for disease caused by Ostreid herpesvirus 1.

Erandi Pathirana. Roles of commensal microbiota of Pacific oysters in disease pathogenesis. Recipient of an Endeavour Scholarship

Cahya Fusianto. Pathobiology and epidemiology of Megalocytivirus infections of fish. Recipient of a John Allwright Fellowship.

Previous PhD completions (co-supervisor)

Olivia Evans. Transmission of Ostreid herpesvirus-1 in the Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas)

Diana Jaramillo. Host, pathogen and environmental interactions of Nervous necrosis virus in Australian finfish

Honours research (2018)

Rebecca Oliver. Impacts of physical and chemical stress on subsequent susceptibility of Pacific oysters to disease caused by OsHV-1.

Georgia Cain. The effect of viral genotype on pathogenesis of OsHV-1.

Doctor of Veterinary Medicine andundergraduate teaching

VETS 6312 Intensive Animal Practice; Research and Enquiry (student advisor); Animal Health and Disease (epidemiology); Agents of Disease (Herpesviruses and laboratory diagnostic techniques); Introductory Veterinary Pathogenesis (epidemiology)

Current research students

Project title Research student
Metabolomics of Bovine Respiratory Disease. Claudia BLAKEBROUGH-HALL

Current projects

Risk factors and pathways for disease transmission associated with biofouling of vessels and aquaculture equipment.

Practical methods of manipulating the immune responses of Pacific oysters to OsHV-1. The interaction of environmental risk factors and the microbiome of Pacific oysters in disease pathogenesis.

Associations

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) nominated expert and co-host of the reference laboratories for Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus and Ranavirus infection of amphibians

Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists (Epidemiology Chapter)

World Aquatic Veterinary Medicine Association (Faculty Advisor University of Sydney Student Chapter)

International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses, member of Iridovirus working group

Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians

In the media

ABC Melbourne’s ABC News interviewed Dr Paul Hick from the Faculty of Veterinary Science about an oyster disease (https://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-07-27/hawkesbury-river-oyster-farming-industry-under-threat/5626962)

Paul is the authorised NATA (National Association of Testing Authorities) representative for the Farm Animal Health Infectious Disease Laboratory which has a scope of accreditation including tests for aquatic viruses, Johnes disease and footrot diagnostic according to the International Standard: ISO 17025.

International links

Indonesia

(Universitas Gadjah Mada) Research collaboration with Dr Murwantoko, identification of production limiting disease in seacage aquaculture.

United States

(University of Florida) Research collaboration with Professor Tom Waltzek and Dr Kuttichantran Subramaniam. Evolution, epidemiology and diagnostic tests for aquatic Iridoviruses.

Selected grants

2018

  • Vessel Biofouling and Aquatic Pathogens; Hick P; Ministry for Primary Industries (NZ)/Research Grant.

2017

  • Rapid identification of emerging pathogens in marine aquaculture; Hick P, Becker J; Sydney Southeast Asia Centre/Cluster Research Grant.

2016

  • Acquatic Animals Health and Biosecurity Subprogram: quarantine risks and disease preparedness for the meglocytivirus ISKNV for Australia; Becker J, Hick P, Lintermans M; Fisheries Research and Development Corporation/Annual Open Call Funding Round.

2015

  • POMS - Closing knowledge gaps to continue farming C. gigas in Australia; Whittington R, Hick P, Dhand N, Rubio A; Fisheries Research and Development Corporation/Research and Development Grant.

2014

  • Aquatic animal health subprogram: Strategic approaches to identifying pathogens of quarantine concern associated with the importation of ornamental fish; Becker J, Crane M, Dhand N, Hick P, Hutson K, Miller T, Robinson A, Stephens F, Toribio J, Whittington R; Fisheries Research and Development Corporation/Annual Open Call Funding Round.

2013

  • Improving fish health management and production protocols in marine finfish aquaculture in Indonesia and Australia; Whittington R, Rimmer M, Dhand N, Hick P, Becker J; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)/Research and Development Programs (R&D Programs).

2012

  • Aquatic Animal Health Subprogram: Pacific oyster mortality syndrome (POMS) - risk mitigation, epidemiology and OsHV-1 biology; Whittington R, Hick P, Dhand N; Fisheries Research and Development Corporation/Annual Open Call Funding Round.

Selected publications

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Book Chapters

  • Hick, P., Becker, J., Whittington, R. (2016). Iridoviruses of Fish. In Frederick Kibenge and Marcos Godoy (Eds.), Aquaculture Virology, (pp. 127-152). London: Academic Press. [More Information]
  • Miller, D., Pessier, A., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2015). Comparative Pathology of Ranaviruses and Diagnostic Techniques. In Matthew Gray, V. Gregory Chinchar (Eds.), Ranaviruses: Lethal Pathogens of Ectothermic Vertebrates, (pp. 171-208). Cham: Springer. [More Information]
  • Duffus, A., Waltzek, T., Stohr, A., Allender, M., Gotesman, M., Whittington, R., Hick, P., Hines, M., Marschang, R. (2015). Distribution and Host Range of Ranaviruses. In Matthew Gray, V. Gregory Chinchar (Eds.), Ranaviruses: Lethal Pathogens of Ectothermic Vertebrates, (pp. 9-57). Cham: Springer. [More Information]

Journals

  • Read, A., Finlaison, D., Gu, X., Hick, P., Moloney, B., Wright, T., Kirkland, P. (2019). Clinical and epidemiological features of West Nile virus equine encephalitis in New South Wales, Australia, 2011. Australian Veterinary Journal, 97(5), 133-143. [More Information]
  • Evans, O., Kan, J., Pathirana, B., Whittington, R., Dhand, N., Hick, P. (2019). Effect of emersion on the mortality of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) infected with Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1). Aquaculture, 505, 157-166. [More Information]
  • Jaramillo, D., Fielder, S., Whittington, R., Hick, P. (2019). Host, agent and environment interactions affecting Nervous necrosis virus infection in Australian bass Macquaria novemaculeata. Journal of Fish Diseases, 42(2), 167-180. [More Information]
  • de Kantzow, M., Whittington, R., Hick, P. (2019). Prior exposure to Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) at 18 degrees is associated with improved survival of juvenile Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas)following challenge at 22 �C. Aquaculture, 507, 443-450. [More Information]
  • Fusianto, C., Hick, P., Becker, J. (2019). Stability of Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus and susceptibility to physical and chemical disinfectants. Aquaculture, 506, 104-111. [More Information]
  • Becker, J., Ward, M., Hick, P. (2018). An epidemiologic model of koi herpesvirus (KHV) biocontrol for carp in Australia. Australian Zoologist, In Press, 1-11. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Evans, O., Rubio Zuazo, A., Dhand, N., Whittington, R. (2018). Both age and size influence susceptibility of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to disease caused by Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) in replicated field and laboratory experiments. Aquaculture, 489, 110-120. [More Information]
  • Whittington, R., Paul-Pont, I., Evans, O., Hick, P., Dhand, N. (2018). Counting the dead to determine the source and transmission of the marine herpesvirus OsHV-1 in Crassostrea gigas. Veterinary Research, 49, 1-21. [More Information]
  • Laurin, E., Thakur, K., Gardner, I., Hick, P., Moody, N., Crane, M., Ernst, I. (2018). Design standards for experimental and field studies to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of tests for infectious diseases in aquatic animals. Journal of Fish Diseases, 41(5), 729-749. [More Information]
  • Stilwell, N., Whittington, R., Hick, P., Becker, J., Ariel, E., van Beurden, S., Vendramin, N., Olesen, N., Waltzek, T. (2018). Partial validation of a TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR for the detection of ranaviruses. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 128(2), 105-116. [More Information]
  • Rijks, J., Saucedo, B., Brunner, J., Hick, P., Lesbarreres, D., Duffus, A., Ash, L., Marschang, R. (2018). Report on the 4th International Symposium on Ranaviruses 2017. The Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery, 28(1-2), 13-18. [More Information]
  • Jaramillo, D., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2017). Age dependency of nervous necrosis virus infection in barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch). Journal of Fish Diseases, 40, 1089-1101. [More Information]
  • Evans, O., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2017). Detection of Ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariants in healthy Crassostrea gigas following disease events and their possible role as reservoirs of infection. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 148, 20-33. [More Information]
  • Chinchar, V., Hick, P., Ince, I., Jancovich, J., Marschang, R., Qin, Q., Subramaniam, K., Waltzek, T., Whittington, R., Williams, T., et al (2017). ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Iridoviridae. Journal of General Virology, 98(5), 890-891. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Subramaniam, K., Thompson, P., Waltzek, T., Becker, J., Whittington, R. (2017). Molecular epidemiology of Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV). Virology, 511, 320-329. [More Information]
  • de Kantzow, M., Hick, P., Dhand, N., Whittington, R. (2017). Risk factors for mortality during the first occurrence of Pacific Oyster Mortality Syndrome due to Ostreid herpesvirus � 1 in Tasmania, 2016. Aquaculture, 468, 328-336. [More Information]
  • Jaramillo, D., Hick, P., Dyrting, K., Anderson, I., Whittington, R. (2017). Surveillance for nervous necrosis virus-specific antibodies in barramundi Lates calcarifer in Australian hatcheries. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 124, 1-10. [More Information]
  • Evans, O., Hick, P., Alford, B., Whittington, R. (2017). Transmission of Ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariant in seawater: Detection of viral DNA in seawater, filter retentates, filter membranes and sentinel Crassostrea gigas spat in upwellers. Aquaculture, 473, 456-467. [More Information]
  • Jaramillo, D., Durr, S., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2016). Bayesian estimation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of anervous necrosis virus antibody ELISADiana. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 123, 138-142. [More Information]
  • Jaramillo, D., Hick, P., Deece, K., Tweedie, A., Kirkland, P., Arzey, E., Whittington, R. (2016). Comparison of ELISA formats for detection of antibodies specific for nervous necrosis virus (Betanodavirus) in the serum of immunized barramundi Lates calcarifer and Australian bass Macquaria novemaculeata. Aquaculture, 451, 33-38. [More Information]
  • Evans, O., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2016). Comparison of Two External Tagging Methods Used for the Identification of Individual Adult Pacific Oysters, Crassostrea gigas. The Journal of Shellfish Research, 35(4), 837-840. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Subramaniam, K., Thompson, P., Whittington, R., Waltzek, T. (2016). Complete Genome Sequence of a Bohle iridovirus Isolate from Ornate Burrowing Frogs (Limnodynastes ornatus) in Australia. Genome Announcements, 4(4), 1-2. [More Information]
  • Evans, O., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2016). Distribution of Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) microvariant in seawater in a recirculating aquaculture system. Aquaculture, 458, 21-28. [More Information]
  • de Kantzow, M., Hick, P., Becker, J., Whittington, R. (2016). Effect of water temperature on mortality of Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas associated with microvariant ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1 �Var). Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 8, 419-428. [More Information]
  • Whittington, R., Hick, P., Evans, O., Rubio Zuazo, A., Dhand, N., Paul-Pont, I. (2016). Pacific oyster mortality syndrome: a marine herpesvirus active in Australia. Microbiology Australia, 37(3), 126-128. [More Information]
  • Gardner, I., Whittington, R., Caraguel, C., Hick, P., Moody, N., Corbeil, S., Garver, K., Warg, J., Arzul, I., Purcell, M., et al (2016). Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: The STRADAS-Aquatic checklist. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 118(2), 91-111. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Evans, O., Looi, R., English, C., Whittington, R. (2016). Stability of Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) and assessment of disinfection of seawater and oyster tissues using a bioassay. Aquaculture, 450, 412-421. [More Information]
  • Kirkland, P., Gabor, M., Poe, I., Neale, K., Chaffey, K., Finlaison, D., Gu, X., Hick, P., Read, A., Wright, T., et al (2015). Hendra virus infection in dog, Australia, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(12), 2182-2185. [More Information]
  • Whittington, R., Hick, P., Evans, O., Rubio Zuazo, A., Alford, B., Dhand, N., Paul-Pont, I. (2015). Protection of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) spat from mortality due to Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1 Mu Var) using simple treatments of incoming seawater in landbased upwellers. Aquaculture, 437, 10-20. [More Information]
  • Evans, O., Paul-Pont, I., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2014). A simple centrifugation method for improving the detection of Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) in natural seawater samples with an assessment of the potential for particulate attachment. Journal of Virological Methods, 210, 59-66. [More Information]
  • Jenkins, C., Hick, P., Gabor, M., Spiers, Z., Fell, S., Gu, X., Read, A., Go, J., Dove, M., O'Connor, W., et al (2013). Identification and characterisation of an ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariant (OsHV-1 μ-var) in Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oysters) in Australia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 105(2), 109-126. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Gore, K., Whittington, R. (2013). Molecular epidemiology of betanodavirus - Sequence analysis strategies and quasispecies influence outbreak source attribution. Virology, 436(1), 15-23. [More Information]
  • Frost, M., Zhang, J., Edmonds, J., Prow, N., Gu, X., Davis, R., Hornitzky, C., Edla Arzey, K., Finlaison, D., Hick, P., Doggett, S., Haniotis, J., Russell, R., et al (2012). Characterization of Virulent West Nile Virus Kunjin Strain, Australia, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(5), 792-800. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Read, A., Lugton, I., Busfield, F., Dawood, K., Gabor, M., Hornitzky, C., Kirkland, P. (2012). Coronavirus infection in intensively managed cattle withrespiratory disease. Australian Veterinary Journal, 90(10), 381-386. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Tweedie, A., Whittington, R. (2011). Optimization of Betanodavirus culture and enumeration in striped snakehead fish cells. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23(3), 465-475. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Whittington, R. (2011). Recurrent outbreaks of viral nervous necrosis in intensively cultured barramundi (Lates calcarifer) due to horizontal transmission of betanodavirus and recommendations for disease control. Aquaculture, 319, 41-52. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2010). Optimisation and validation of a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of betanodavirus. Journal of Virological Methods, 163, 368-377. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Tweedie, A., Whittington, R. (2010). Preparation of fish tissues for optimal detection of betanodavirus. Aquaculture, 310, 20-26. [More Information]

Conferences

  • Sah Putra, B., Hick, P., Rimmer, M., Khairul, R., Evarianti, E., Nurbariah, N., Royani, R., Tajussalatin, T., Muslim, C., Becker, J. (2016). Identification of the key pathogens responsible for production losses at grouper nurseries in Aceh Indonesia. Frontiers in Science AquaEpi I - 2016, Thon Conference Universitetsgaten, Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI).
  • Becker, J., Gonzalez, A., Hick, P., Robinson, A., Hutson, A., Hutson, K. (2016). Strategic approaches to identifying pathogens of imported ornamental fish and the risk posed to biosecurity in Australia. Frontiers in Science AquaEpi I - 2016, Thon Conference Universitetsgaten, Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI).
  • Becker, J., Hick, P., Hutson, K., Tweedie, A., Miller, T., Whittington, R. (2015). Ornamental fish trade as a risk to Australian biosecurity. 14th International Society of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics meeting, Mexico: N/A.
  • Allas, J., Becker, J., Miller, T., Hick, P., Whittington, R., Hutson, K. (2015). Parasites of imported marine ornamental fish (Apogonidae). 3rd FRDC Australasian Aquatic Animal Health Scientific Conference, N/A: N/A.
  • Becker, J., Hick, P., Hutson, K., Tweedie, A., Miller, T., Whittington, R. (2015). Strategic approaches to identifying pathogens of quarantine concern associated with the importation of ornamental fish. 3rd FRDC Australasian Aquatic Animal Health Scientific Conference, N/A: N/A.
  • Hick, P., Rubio, A., Evans, O., Whittington, R. (2014). Age is more important that size in determining the susceptibility of Pacific Oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) to mortality associated with Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OSHV-1) infection. World Aquaculture Adelaide 2014 Create/Nurture/Grow, N/A: N/A.
  • Evans, O., Paul-Pont, I., Dhand, N., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2014). Investigating the transmission factors of Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OSHV-1) within the environment: Wild mollusc species as a possible source of infection? World Aquaculture Adelaide 2014 Create/Nurture/Grow, N/A: N/A.
  • Jaramillo, D., Fielder, S., Hick, P., Go, J., Whittington, R. (2014). Modulating factors in viral nervous necrosis (VNN). The role of host age and water temperature on disease outcome based on an Australian bass laboratory infection model. World Aquaculture Adelaide 2014 Create/Nurture/Grow, N/A: N/A.
  • Jaramillo, D., Hick, P., Fielder, S., Whittington, R. (2014). Observations on age dependency of viral nervous necrosis and implications for disease control. Seventh International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health, N/A: N/A.
  • Whittington, R., Jaramillo, D., Hick, P., Frances, J., Kirkland, P., Edla Arzey, K., Crane, M., Moody, N., Dyrting, K., Anderson, I. (2012). Nervous necrosis virus - New tests and epidemiological investigations suggest a way forward in disease control. Australasian Aquaculture - "The next ten years", Melbourne, Victoria: N/A.
  • Hick, P., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Whittington, R. (2011). Epidemiology of viral nervous necrosis in intensively cultured barramundi (Lates calcarifer): horizontal transmission. First FRDC Australasian Scientific Conference on Aquatic Animal Health, N/A: N/A.
  • Hick, P., Humphreys, J., Bosmans, J., Schipp, G., Whittington, R. (2009). Improved detection of nodavirus in barramundi aquaculture and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks in the Northern Territory. Australian Veterinary Association Annual Conference, Darwin: Australian Veterinary Association.
  • Hick, P., Taylor, D., Begg, D., Bosmans, J., Schipp, G., Humphrey, J., Melville, L., Whittington, R. (2008). Investigation of the epidemiology of betanodavirus infection in hatchery reared barramundi (Lates calarifer) using real time RT-PCR. 7th Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture 2008, Taiwan: National Taiwan University.
  • Hick, P., Taylor, D., Begg, D., Tweedie, A., Bosmans, J., Schipp, G., Humphrey, J., Melville, L., Whittington, R. (2008). The effect of sample preparation on the sensitivity of a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for betanodavirus. Australasian Aquaculture Conference 2008, Australia: National Aquaculture Council of Australia.
  • Whittington, R., Schipp, S., Humphrey, J., Melville, L., Hick, P., Gore, K. (2007). Biotechnology and epidemiology to control nodavirus in barramundi aquaculture. FRDC National Nodavirus R&D Workshop 2007, Australia: Fisheries Research and Development Corporation.
  • Hick, P., Gore, K., Whittington, R., Taylor, D., Begg, D., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Melville, L. (2007). Effect of incubation temperature on the permissivity of the SSN-1 cell line to Australian barramundi nervous necrosis virus (ABNNV). 3rd National FRDC Aquatic Animal Health Scientific Conference 2007, Australia: Fisheries Research and Development Corporation.
  • Gore, K., Hick, P., Begg, D., Taylor, D., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Melville, L., Whittington, R. (2007). History of viral nervous necrosis outbreaks in farmed barramundi Lates calcarifer from the Northern Territory of Australia. 3rd National FRDC Aquatic Animal Health Scientific Conference 2007, Australia: Fisheries Research and Development Corporation.
  • Gore, K., Hick, P., Begg, D., Taylor, D., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Melville, L., Whittington, R. (2006). Effect of incubation temperature on the permissivity of the SSN-1 cell line to Australian barramundi nervous necrosis virus (ABNNV). 2006 Viral Nervous Necrosis International Symposium, Hiroshima, Japan: Japanese Society of Fish Pathology.
  • Gore, K., Hick, P., Begg, D., Taylor, D., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Melville, J., Whittington, R. (2006). History of viral nervous necrosis outbreaks in farmed barramundi Lates calcarifer from the Northern Territory of Australia. 2006 Viral Nervous Necrosis International Symposium, Hiroshima, Japan: Japanese Society of Fish Pathology.
  • Hick, P., Gore, K., Taylor, D., Begg, D., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Melville, L., Whittington, R. (2006). Permissivity of the SSN-1 cell line to Lates calcarifer nervous necrosis virus. 2006 Viral Nervous Necrosis International Symposium, Hiroshima, Japan: Japanese Society of Fish Pathology.

2019

  • Read, A., Finlaison, D., Gu, X., Hick, P., Moloney, B., Wright, T., Kirkland, P. (2019). Clinical and epidemiological features of West Nile virus equine encephalitis in New South Wales, Australia, 2011. Australian Veterinary Journal, 97(5), 133-143. [More Information]
  • Evans, O., Kan, J., Pathirana, B., Whittington, R., Dhand, N., Hick, P. (2019). Effect of emersion on the mortality of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) infected with Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1). Aquaculture, 505, 157-166. [More Information]
  • Jaramillo, D., Fielder, S., Whittington, R., Hick, P. (2019). Host, agent and environment interactions affecting Nervous necrosis virus infection in Australian bass Macquaria novemaculeata. Journal of Fish Diseases, 42(2), 167-180. [More Information]
  • de Kantzow, M., Whittington, R., Hick, P. (2019). Prior exposure to Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) at 18 degrees is associated with improved survival of juvenile Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas)following challenge at 22 �C. Aquaculture, 507, 443-450. [More Information]
  • Fusianto, C., Hick, P., Becker, J. (2019). Stability of Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus and susceptibility to physical and chemical disinfectants. Aquaculture, 506, 104-111. [More Information]

2018

  • Becker, J., Ward, M., Hick, P. (2018). An epidemiologic model of koi herpesvirus (KHV) biocontrol for carp in Australia. Australian Zoologist, In Press, 1-11. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Evans, O., Rubio Zuazo, A., Dhand, N., Whittington, R. (2018). Both age and size influence susceptibility of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to disease caused by Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) in replicated field and laboratory experiments. Aquaculture, 489, 110-120. [More Information]
  • Whittington, R., Paul-Pont, I., Evans, O., Hick, P., Dhand, N. (2018). Counting the dead to determine the source and transmission of the marine herpesvirus OsHV-1 in Crassostrea gigas. Veterinary Research, 49, 1-21. [More Information]
  • Laurin, E., Thakur, K., Gardner, I., Hick, P., Moody, N., Crane, M., Ernst, I. (2018). Design standards for experimental and field studies to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of tests for infectious diseases in aquatic animals. Journal of Fish Diseases, 41(5), 729-749. [More Information]
  • Stilwell, N., Whittington, R., Hick, P., Becker, J., Ariel, E., van Beurden, S., Vendramin, N., Olesen, N., Waltzek, T. (2018). Partial validation of a TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR for the detection of ranaviruses. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 128(2), 105-116. [More Information]
  • Rijks, J., Saucedo, B., Brunner, J., Hick, P., Lesbarreres, D., Duffus, A., Ash, L., Marschang, R. (2018). Report on the 4th International Symposium on Ranaviruses 2017. The Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery, 28(1-2), 13-18. [More Information]

2017

  • Jaramillo, D., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2017). Age dependency of nervous necrosis virus infection in barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch). Journal of Fish Diseases, 40, 1089-1101. [More Information]
  • Evans, O., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2017). Detection of Ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariants in healthy Crassostrea gigas following disease events and their possible role as reservoirs of infection. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 148, 20-33. [More Information]
  • Chinchar, V., Hick, P., Ince, I., Jancovich, J., Marschang, R., Qin, Q., Subramaniam, K., Waltzek, T., Whittington, R., Williams, T., et al (2017). ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Iridoviridae. Journal of General Virology, 98(5), 890-891. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Subramaniam, K., Thompson, P., Waltzek, T., Becker, J., Whittington, R. (2017). Molecular epidemiology of Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV). Virology, 511, 320-329. [More Information]
  • de Kantzow, M., Hick, P., Dhand, N., Whittington, R. (2017). Risk factors for mortality during the first occurrence of Pacific Oyster Mortality Syndrome due to Ostreid herpesvirus � 1 in Tasmania, 2016. Aquaculture, 468, 328-336. [More Information]
  • Jaramillo, D., Hick, P., Dyrting, K., Anderson, I., Whittington, R. (2017). Surveillance for nervous necrosis virus-specific antibodies in barramundi Lates calcarifer in Australian hatcheries. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 124, 1-10. [More Information]
  • Evans, O., Hick, P., Alford, B., Whittington, R. (2017). Transmission of Ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariant in seawater: Detection of viral DNA in seawater, filter retentates, filter membranes and sentinel Crassostrea gigas spat in upwellers. Aquaculture, 473, 456-467. [More Information]

2016

  • Jaramillo, D., Durr, S., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2016). Bayesian estimation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of anervous necrosis virus antibody ELISADiana. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 123, 138-142. [More Information]
  • Jaramillo, D., Hick, P., Deece, K., Tweedie, A., Kirkland, P., Arzey, E., Whittington, R. (2016). Comparison of ELISA formats for detection of antibodies specific for nervous necrosis virus (Betanodavirus) in the serum of immunized barramundi Lates calcarifer and Australian bass Macquaria novemaculeata. Aquaculture, 451, 33-38. [More Information]
  • Evans, O., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2016). Comparison of Two External Tagging Methods Used for the Identification of Individual Adult Pacific Oysters, Crassostrea gigas. The Journal of Shellfish Research, 35(4), 837-840. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Subramaniam, K., Thompson, P., Whittington, R., Waltzek, T. (2016). Complete Genome Sequence of a Bohle iridovirus Isolate from Ornate Burrowing Frogs (Limnodynastes ornatus) in Australia. Genome Announcements, 4(4), 1-2. [More Information]
  • Evans, O., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2016). Distribution of Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) microvariant in seawater in a recirculating aquaculture system. Aquaculture, 458, 21-28. [More Information]
  • de Kantzow, M., Hick, P., Becker, J., Whittington, R. (2016). Effect of water temperature on mortality of Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas associated with microvariant ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1 �Var). Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 8, 419-428. [More Information]
  • Sah Putra, B., Hick, P., Rimmer, M., Khairul, R., Evarianti, E., Nurbariah, N., Royani, R., Tajussalatin, T., Muslim, C., Becker, J. (2016). Identification of the key pathogens responsible for production losses at grouper nurseries in Aceh Indonesia. Frontiers in Science AquaEpi I - 2016, Thon Conference Universitetsgaten, Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI).
  • Hick, P., Becker, J., Whittington, R. (2016). Iridoviruses of Fish. In Frederick Kibenge and Marcos Godoy (Eds.), Aquaculture Virology, (pp. 127-152). London: Academic Press. [More Information]
  • Whittington, R., Hick, P., Evans, O., Rubio Zuazo, A., Dhand, N., Paul-Pont, I. (2016). Pacific oyster mortality syndrome: a marine herpesvirus active in Australia. Microbiology Australia, 37(3), 126-128. [More Information]
  • Gardner, I., Whittington, R., Caraguel, C., Hick, P., Moody, N., Corbeil, S., Garver, K., Warg, J., Arzul, I., Purcell, M., et al (2016). Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: The STRADAS-Aquatic checklist. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 118(2), 91-111. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Evans, O., Looi, R., English, C., Whittington, R. (2016). Stability of Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) and assessment of disinfection of seawater and oyster tissues using a bioassay. Aquaculture, 450, 412-421. [More Information]
  • Becker, J., Gonzalez, A., Hick, P., Robinson, A., Hutson, A., Hutson, K. (2016). Strategic approaches to identifying pathogens of imported ornamental fish and the risk posed to biosecurity in Australia. Frontiers in Science AquaEpi I - 2016, Thon Conference Universitetsgaten, Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI).

2015

  • Miller, D., Pessier, A., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2015). Comparative Pathology of Ranaviruses and Diagnostic Techniques. In Matthew Gray, V. Gregory Chinchar (Eds.), Ranaviruses: Lethal Pathogens of Ectothermic Vertebrates, (pp. 171-208). Cham: Springer. [More Information]
  • Duffus, A., Waltzek, T., Stohr, A., Allender, M., Gotesman, M., Whittington, R., Hick, P., Hines, M., Marschang, R. (2015). Distribution and Host Range of Ranaviruses. In Matthew Gray, V. Gregory Chinchar (Eds.), Ranaviruses: Lethal Pathogens of Ectothermic Vertebrates, (pp. 9-57). Cham: Springer. [More Information]
  • Kirkland, P., Gabor, M., Poe, I., Neale, K., Chaffey, K., Finlaison, D., Gu, X., Hick, P., Read, A., Wright, T., et al (2015). Hendra virus infection in dog, Australia, 2013. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21(12), 2182-2185. [More Information]
  • Becker, J., Hick, P., Hutson, K., Tweedie, A., Miller, T., Whittington, R. (2015). Ornamental fish trade as a risk to Australian biosecurity. 14th International Society of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics meeting, Mexico: N/A.
  • Allas, J., Becker, J., Miller, T., Hick, P., Whittington, R., Hutson, K. (2015). Parasites of imported marine ornamental fish (Apogonidae). 3rd FRDC Australasian Aquatic Animal Health Scientific Conference, N/A: N/A.
  • Whittington, R., Hick, P., Evans, O., Rubio Zuazo, A., Alford, B., Dhand, N., Paul-Pont, I. (2015). Protection of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) spat from mortality due to Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1 Mu Var) using simple treatments of incoming seawater in landbased upwellers. Aquaculture, 437, 10-20. [More Information]
  • Becker, J., Hick, P., Hutson, K., Tweedie, A., Miller, T., Whittington, R. (2015). Strategic approaches to identifying pathogens of quarantine concern associated with the importation of ornamental fish. 3rd FRDC Australasian Aquatic Animal Health Scientific Conference, N/A: N/A.

2014

  • Evans, O., Paul-Pont, I., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2014). A simple centrifugation method for improving the detection of Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OsHV-1) in natural seawater samples with an assessment of the potential for particulate attachment. Journal of Virological Methods, 210, 59-66. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Rubio, A., Evans, O., Whittington, R. (2014). Age is more important that size in determining the susceptibility of Pacific Oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) to mortality associated with Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OSHV-1) infection. World Aquaculture Adelaide 2014 Create/Nurture/Grow, N/A: N/A.
  • Evans, O., Paul-Pont, I., Dhand, N., Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2014). Investigating the transmission factors of Ostreid herpesvirus-1 (OSHV-1) within the environment: Wild mollusc species as a possible source of infection? World Aquaculture Adelaide 2014 Create/Nurture/Grow, N/A: N/A.
  • Jaramillo, D., Fielder, S., Hick, P., Go, J., Whittington, R. (2014). Modulating factors in viral nervous necrosis (VNN). The role of host age and water temperature on disease outcome based on an Australian bass laboratory infection model. World Aquaculture Adelaide 2014 Create/Nurture/Grow, N/A: N/A.
  • Jaramillo, D., Hick, P., Fielder, S., Whittington, R. (2014). Observations on age dependency of viral nervous necrosis and implications for disease control. Seventh International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health, N/A: N/A.

2013

  • Jenkins, C., Hick, P., Gabor, M., Spiers, Z., Fell, S., Gu, X., Read, A., Go, J., Dove, M., O'Connor, W., et al (2013). Identification and characterisation of an ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariant (OsHV-1 μ-var) in Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oysters) in Australia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 105(2), 109-126. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Gore, K., Whittington, R. (2013). Molecular epidemiology of betanodavirus - Sequence analysis strategies and quasispecies influence outbreak source attribution. Virology, 436(1), 15-23. [More Information]

2012

  • Frost, M., Zhang, J., Edmonds, J., Prow, N., Gu, X., Davis, R., Hornitzky, C., Edla Arzey, K., Finlaison, D., Hick, P., Doggett, S., Haniotis, J., Russell, R., et al (2012). Characterization of Virulent West Nile Virus Kunjin Strain, Australia, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(5), 792-800. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Read, A., Lugton, I., Busfield, F., Dawood, K., Gabor, M., Hornitzky, C., Kirkland, P. (2012). Coronavirus infection in intensively managed cattle withrespiratory disease. Australian Veterinary Journal, 90(10), 381-386. [More Information]
  • Whittington, R., Jaramillo, D., Hick, P., Frances, J., Kirkland, P., Edla Arzey, K., Crane, M., Moody, N., Dyrting, K., Anderson, I. (2012). Nervous necrosis virus - New tests and epidemiological investigations suggest a way forward in disease control. Australasian Aquaculture - "The next ten years", Melbourne, Victoria: N/A.

2011

  • Hick, P., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Whittington, R. (2011). Epidemiology of viral nervous necrosis in intensively cultured barramundi (Lates calcarifer): horizontal transmission. First FRDC Australasian Scientific Conference on Aquatic Animal Health, N/A: N/A.
  • Hick, P., Tweedie, A., Whittington, R. (2011). Optimization of Betanodavirus culture and enumeration in striped snakehead fish cells. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23(3), 465-475. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Whittington, R. (2011). Recurrent outbreaks of viral nervous necrosis in intensively cultured barramundi (Lates calcarifer) due to horizontal transmission of betanodavirus and recommendations for disease control. Aquaculture, 319, 41-52. [More Information]

2010

  • Hick, P., Whittington, R. (2010). Optimisation and validation of a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of betanodavirus. Journal of Virological Methods, 163, 368-377. [More Information]
  • Hick, P., Tweedie, A., Whittington, R. (2010). Preparation of fish tissues for optimal detection of betanodavirus. Aquaculture, 310, 20-26. [More Information]

2009

  • Hick, P., Humphreys, J., Bosmans, J., Schipp, G., Whittington, R. (2009). Improved detection of nodavirus in barramundi aquaculture and epidemiological investigations of outbreaks in the Northern Territory. Australian Veterinary Association Annual Conference, Darwin: Australian Veterinary Association.

2008

  • Hick, P., Taylor, D., Begg, D., Bosmans, J., Schipp, G., Humphrey, J., Melville, L., Whittington, R. (2008). Investigation of the epidemiology of betanodavirus infection in hatchery reared barramundi (Lates calarifer) using real time RT-PCR. 7th Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture 2008, Taiwan: National Taiwan University.
  • Hick, P., Taylor, D., Begg, D., Tweedie, A., Bosmans, J., Schipp, G., Humphrey, J., Melville, L., Whittington, R. (2008). The effect of sample preparation on the sensitivity of a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for betanodavirus. Australasian Aquaculture Conference 2008, Australia: National Aquaculture Council of Australia.

2007

  • Whittington, R., Schipp, S., Humphrey, J., Melville, L., Hick, P., Gore, K. (2007). Biotechnology and epidemiology to control nodavirus in barramundi aquaculture. FRDC National Nodavirus R&D Workshop 2007, Australia: Fisheries Research and Development Corporation.
  • Hick, P., Gore, K., Whittington, R., Taylor, D., Begg, D., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Melville, L. (2007). Effect of incubation temperature on the permissivity of the SSN-1 cell line to Australian barramundi nervous necrosis virus (ABNNV). 3rd National FRDC Aquatic Animal Health Scientific Conference 2007, Australia: Fisheries Research and Development Corporation.
  • Gore, K., Hick, P., Begg, D., Taylor, D., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Melville, L., Whittington, R. (2007). History of viral nervous necrosis outbreaks in farmed barramundi Lates calcarifer from the Northern Territory of Australia. 3rd National FRDC Aquatic Animal Health Scientific Conference 2007, Australia: Fisheries Research and Development Corporation.

2006

  • Gore, K., Hick, P., Begg, D., Taylor, D., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Melville, L., Whittington, R. (2006). Effect of incubation temperature on the permissivity of the SSN-1 cell line to Australian barramundi nervous necrosis virus (ABNNV). 2006 Viral Nervous Necrosis International Symposium, Hiroshima, Japan: Japanese Society of Fish Pathology.
  • Gore, K., Hick, P., Begg, D., Taylor, D., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Melville, J., Whittington, R. (2006). History of viral nervous necrosis outbreaks in farmed barramundi Lates calcarifer from the Northern Territory of Australia. 2006 Viral Nervous Necrosis International Symposium, Hiroshima, Japan: Japanese Society of Fish Pathology.
  • Hick, P., Gore, K., Taylor, D., Begg, D., Schipp, G., Bosmans, J., Humphrey, J., Melville, L., Whittington, R. (2006). Permissivity of the SSN-1 cell line to Lates calcarifer nervous necrosis virus. 2006 Viral Nervous Necrosis International Symposium, Hiroshima, Japan: Japanese Society of Fish Pathology.

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