The Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders

2016 Boden Institute Events and Courses Archive


9 February 2016 Professor Stephan Rössner
Discrimination of obesity in society


16 February 2016 Associate Professor Grant Brinkworth
Long-term health and safety effects of very low carbohydrate diets for diabetes management


1 March 2016 Professor Martin R. Yeomans
Satiety: the integration of cognition, sensory and nutritional signals


15 March 2016 Professor Tim Lambert
Nihilism, neglect, and premature mortality: the Collaborative Centre for Cardiometabolic Health in Psychosis


22 March 2016 Professor Andrew Hill
The psychology of food craving


12 April 2016 Dr Shahadat Uddin
Trends in obesity research over a 20 year period: what can we learn when complex systems analysts and obesity researchers work together?


28 June 2016 Dr Emma Boyland
The impact of food marketing on children's eating behaviour


12 July 2016 Associate Professor Sarah Garnett
Dietary interventions for youth with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes


19 July 2016 Dr Kieron Rooney & Emeritus Professor Bob Boakes
Metabolic and behavioural outcomes of excess consumption and withdrawal from sugar sweetened beverages


26 July 2016 Professor Timothy Gill
Dietary Guidance: Has the evidence changed or have we changed?


2011-2015 Boden Institute Events and Courses Archives


2015 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).

2014 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).

2013 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).

2012 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).

2011 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).


Seminar participants

EVENT DESCRIPTIONS

Discrimination of obesity in society

Tuesday 9 February 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Professor Stephan Rössner is Professor Emeritus of health behaviour research at the Karolinska Institute.

Summary of talk
Access to food has once been a survival strategy and the potential to maintain an excess energy store an advantage, when food shortage and starvation were part of every day life. Stone-age sculptures show grossly obese women as something very attractive.

The early years of Hollywood films used obese actors as their favourites to laugh at. Obese people were ridiculed as they were seen as sloppy, gluttonous and out of control. A film director once said ”any fat man is funny, especially when he is eating spaghetti.” With increasing knowledge about the health risks of overweight interest in obese actors was lost after some 20 years. Numerous data show that obese individuals are ostracized in society, from childhood and onwards. Obese individuals get lower salaries, higher health insurance costs, more expensive house renting, and less qualified tasks than normal weight subjects.

One would believe that the health care system would handle obesity - like any other disease - professionally and in a respectful way, but this is not the case. Doctors, nurses, dieticians, psychologists and physiotherapists often treat obese patients with scorn. In a sense this is understandable since compliance is low and treatment results far from satisfying. Education programs have been developed to train students of all kinds to treat the obese with the respect and compassion they deserve. After all, nobody in modern society wants to be obese and those unfortunately afflicted by the clash between stone-age genes and the modern ”toxic environment” need whatever support can be given rather than negative attitude with which they are often met.

About the presenter
Stephan Rössner MD, PhD is Professor Emeritus of health behaviour research at the Karolinska Institute and founder of the Obesity Unit, the academic centre as well as the clinical treatment program. After an initial clinical training as a cardiologist, Stephan developed the first Swedish clinical centre for treatment of severe obesity and its complications in Stockholm. He founded the Swedish Society for Obesity Research, and was President of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 1998-2002, which he also served in different capacities for more than 20 years.

Stephan has published more than 660 papers on cardiovascular medicine, nutrition, medical education and communication and long term treatment strategies for obesity and also contributed in a number of international textbooks on nutrition related matters. He is the present Director of the Royal Swedish Gastronomic Academy and the past President of the Swedish Academy for Culinary Sciences.

Stephan has published numerous cooking books, TV programs and material for the lay public. He has also communicated life style matters in humoristic ways as an actor on stage and as a stand-up comedian.


Long-term health and safety effects of very low carbohydrate diets for diabetes management

Tuesday 16 February 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Associate Professor Grant Brinkworth is a Principal Research Scientist at CSIRO – Food and Nutrition with expertise in nutrition and exercise science.

Summary of talk
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a National Research Priority with enormous health and socioeconomic costs. Diabetes related comorbidities are underpinned by poor glucose control that is greatly influenced by diet composition. Current clinical practice guidelines advocate a low fat, high unrefined carbohydrate (HC) diet for T2D management. However, this recommendation has been questioned following advancements in understanding that carbohydrate restriction and higher intakes of protein and unsaturated fat improve blood glucose control and cardiovascular disease risk.

Based on evidence available in nutrition research, we have devised an eating pattern that markedly limits carbohydrates, increases protein and unsaturated fat, and is nutritious with the potential to improve blood glucose control and reduce cardiovascular disease risk to a greater extent than the traditional HC dietary approach. This presentation will discuss the findings of a large, long-term, well-controlled NH&MRC-funded randomised controlled clinical study comparing the effects of consumption of either a traditional HC diet or the very low carbohydrate, high unsaturated fat diet while participating in a structured exercise program on multiple health outcomes. Early findings indicated that independent of any change in weight, the blood glucose profile improves substantially in the very low carbohydrate group. The diet is well tolerated and the need for medication is also reduced to a greater extent. If improvements can be sustained, then this will have implications for dietary guidelines for the management of T2D, with better outcomes and an overall reduction in health care costs.

About the presenter
Associate Professor Grant Brinkworth is a Principal Research Scientist at CSIRO – Food and Nutrition with expertise in nutrition and exercise science. He is responsible for leading several large-scale, clinical studies evaluating the effects of dietary patterns, foods, nutritional components and physical exercise on weight loss, metabolic disease risk management, and physical and mental functioning and performance in healthy and clinical populations, including type 2 diabetes.

Grant has acquired greater than $6.5 million of combined nationally competitive health and industry funding to conduct this research and was awarded a $1.3 million research grant from the NH&MRC to conduct a large clinical study to evaluate the role of very low carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes management. He has published over 65 peer reviewed journal papers on the topic of diet and lifestyle management of obesity and related disease.


Satiety: the integration of cognition, sensory and nutritional signals

Tuesday 1 March 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Professor Martin R. Yeomans is Professor of Experimental Psychology at the University of Sussex, UK.

Summary of talk
Satiety, the suppression of appetite by the effects of ingested nutrients, is critical to the long-term control of body-size: if people over-ingest at one meal, provided that the ingested food suppresses subsequent eating then overall intake can be regulated. But the worldwide increase in obesity clearly suggests that satiety is ineffective in the context of modern lifestyles with abundant access to palatable foods. Understanding the fundamental processes that drive satiety therefore open opportunities to reformulate products to maximise the likelihood that consumers experience appropriate satiety, so aiding weight control.

Although a great deal of focus on satiety has explored physiological effects of ingestion on gut hormones etc, a simple model of satiety based on gut hormone release cannot explain a wide range of behavioural satiety data. There is ample evidence that beliefs about the effects of products and their sensory properties all modify satiety responses, and this talk highlights recent work at Sussex that has elucidated some of these effects.

About the presenter
Professor Martin R. Yeomans is Professor of Experimental Psychology in the School of Psychology at the University of Sussex, UK. He has produced over 90 peer-reviewed publications, has a greater than 2500 lifetime citation, and has been awarded more than £2.5M in research, mainly as research grants funded by BBSRC.

Martin's research explores psychological and physiological aspects of human ingestion, and involves a large number of related projects, linked by the overall aim of elucidating psychological and physiological controls of appetite. Current areas of interest include:
- Understanding appetite and satiety
- Individual differences
- Flavour perception and learning
- Psychopharmacology


Nihilism, neglect, and premature mortality: the Collaborative Centre for Cardiometabolic Health in Psychosis

Tuesday 15 March 2016 12:00–1:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Professor Tim Lambert is Professor of Psychiatry at Concord Clinical School at the University of Sydney.

Summary of talk
This seminar will outline the dire statistics regarding early death in those with severe mental illness and describe the innovative (and unique) Concord Centre for Cardiometabolic Health in Psychosis (ccCHiP) clinical service model at the Charles Perkins Centre (and Sydney Local Health District more broadly) as a practical solution. ccCHiP is a translational vehicle to drive services towards integrated whole person health care combining neuropsychiatry, clinical pharmacology, endocrinology, cardiology, dentistry, dietetics, exercise physiology, and sleep medicine.

About the presenter
Tim Lambert, BSc, MBBS, PhD, FRANZCP, is Professor of Psychiatry at Concord Clinical School at the University of Sydney in Australia. In addition, he fulfills clinical duties for Sydney Local Health Network as Director of the Centre of Excellence in Relapse Prevention in Psychosis (CERP), and at the Concord Centre for Cardiometabolic Health in Psychosis (ccCHiP).

Tim has a portfolio of interests in translational aspects of clinical neuropharmacology and neurosciences. These span clinical psychosis research, outcomes research, service delivery models, training, and education. His current interests focus on:
- services research (pharmacoepidemiology, developing novel relapse prevention, treatment resistance, and cardiometabolic services for the seriously mentally ill);
- the clinical pharmacology of LAI antipsychotics (first and second generation) and of the second-generation antipsychotics, particularly risk-benefit aspects and the applied clinical pharmacology of antipsychotic switching;
- physical comorbidities of psychotic disorders, especially cardiometabolic syndromes; and
- incomplete recovery.

Social aspects, particularly the role of acculturation on clinical phenotypes permeate all facets of these programmes.


The psychology of food craving

Tuesday 22 March 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Professor Andrew Hill is Head of the Academic Unit of Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences, and Director of Student Progression at Leeds University School of Medicine, UK.

Summary of talk
Food cravings continue to both fascinate and divide opinion. Their portrayal juxtaposes quirky food choices (mostly by women) with compulsions that trigger unplanned overeating. Food cravings are central to the representation of food addiction, itself a highly controversial concept. For some authors, food cravings are expressions of need for specific nutrients. Consuming the foods and other substances craved is functional in addressing some biological imbalance. For others, the functionality of cravings lies in emotional
regulation. This representation recognises the complex role that food,
especially food with high pleasure value, plays in people’s lives. So, what does research tell us about food craving?

Food cravings are characterised by their intensity and their specificity. They are extremely common experiences, reported by the majority, and reflect the food environment of those who crave. Food cravings are closely associated with liking; people crave the foods they like to eat. But cravings are not synonymous with increased food intake. The range of assessments that measure food cravings reflects some of the uncertainty about their nature. Descriptive approaches to food cravings offer most in terms of understanding the nature and psychological functions of these experiences. The focus will be on food cravings during pregnancy, weight management, and after bariatric surgery. This functional view also reveals the potential for psychological approaches in the management of food cravings.

About the presenter
Andrew Hill is Professor of Medical Psychology, Head of the Academic Unit of Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences, and Director of Student Progression at Leeds University School of Medicine. Andrew is also Visiting Professor at Sydney Medical School for 3 years from 2015. He was Chairman of the UK Association for the Study of Obesity from 1999-2002 and is currently a member of the UK Department of Health’s Obesity Review Group. Over the last 25 years or so his research interests have ranged from human appetite control to the development of weight and shape concerns in children, and the variety of psychological issues inherent in obesity and eating disorders.


Trends in obesity research over a 20 year period: what can we learn when complex systems analysts and obesity researchers work together?

Tuesday 12 April 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Dr Shahadat Uddin is from the Complex Systems Group at the University of Sydney.

Summary of talk
Understanding emerging areas of a multidisciplinary research field is crucial for researchers, policymakers and other stakeholders. One good way to do that is to look at the bibliographic information embedded in the scholarly publications. This information are normally indexed and made available to public by different websites (e.g., Google Scholar), online digital libraries (e.g., Scopus, PubMed etc.). However, there exists a great hindrance in extracting the crucial information and present them in understandable manner due to availability of vast amount of data. Especially for a multidisciplinary research area like obesity, there is a significant gap in understanding properly how the research has evolved in last two decades to address the global issue of obesity.

To understand the trends in Obesity domain, researchers from Sydney University’s ‘Complex Systems Research Group’ and obesity researchers from ‘Sydney School of Public Health’ have been collaborating for the last two years. They have organised a large dataset consisting of all the scholarly publication (n = 117,340) metadata for 20-years’ period indexed by Scopus. These metadata include author(s) information, publication place, year, funding information, associated keywords, affiliation and citation information. Using complex system and network analysis measures, they tried to explore various trends within the subdomains of obesity. The findings show that output in global obesity research has doubled in every five years. Collaboration between different countries, institutions and disciplines also showed steady growth. The result is then reviewed by obesity researchers to provide interpretation for wider range of audiences. The overall trends analysed so far are:
1. The evolution of different obesity subdomains through author-keyword analysis.
2. Regional and organisational research output in terms of scholarly impact (citation count).
3. Different levels of collaboration trends (e.g., countries, institutions and disciplines).

Overall the study shows the potential of collaboration between network scientists and obesity experts and how it can reveal trends from unmined data. This research can help to make informed decisions and aid research productivity across geographically dispersed locations. It can also significantly help scholars within the obesity domain by giving them structured knowledge of the domain, rather than relying only on intuitive understanding of the field.

About the presenter
Dr Shahadat Uddin develops modelling and analysing approaches for exploring longitudinal complex networks. Shahadat’s research has addressed how changing actors' network positions affect their performance in different longitudinal complex networks, especially in complex collaboration networks among healthcare professionals and longitudinal scientific workforce networks. He holds a PhD in network science research area from the University of Sydney.


The impact of food marketing on children's eating behaviour

Tuesday 28 June 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Dr Emma Boyland is a Lecturer in Appetite and Obesity at the University of Liverpool.

Summary of talk
Few can have missed the memo that obesity is a problem. In the UK, one in five children start school already overweight or obese (rising to around one in three at age 10-11). For young people, overweight and obesity are associated with a number of health-related and psychosocial consequences, both in the short term and the long term. Obese children become obese adults, and the resultant costs to healthcare systems are substantial.

Arguably, obesity is a normal human response to the so-called ‘obesogenic’ or ‘obesity-promoting’ environment in which we find ourselves. Children in most developed countries today are natives of this environment and are thus experiencing the outcome of food systems that are producing increasing quantities of processed, affordable, and effectively marketed food. Children are also particularly important targets for marketers. What does research tell us about how this exposure to unhealthy food advertising has an impact on their diets? And, if we believe it to be impactful, what should we do about it?

The focus of this talk will be on the evidence to demonstrate an effect of food marketing exposure on eating behaviour in children, and will illustrate how this evidence has underpinned policy action in this area (using the UK as an example).

About the presenter
Dr Emma Boyland from the University of Liverpool has published 40 journal articles and 6 book chapters to date, as well as over 30 published conference abstracts. She was recently called as an expert witness for the UK Health Select Committee enquiry into childhood obesity, and she is a member of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Network for World Obesity and a Trustee of the UK Association for the Study of Obesity.


Dietary interventions for youth with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes

Tuesday 12 July 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Associate Professor Sarah Garnett from the Children’s Hospital at Westmead.

Summary of talk
Adolescent obesity is associated with both short and long term complications including type 2 diabetes, related comorbidities and premature mortality. Lifestyle modification is the first line of treatment. However, which is the best diet remains unclear. Emerging evidence indicates that the primary objective of dietary interventions should be to reduce the total energy intake and the most successful diet will be the one that the patient will adhere. Current recommendations involve moderate daily energy restriction. Yet several studies, including our recent randomised control trial, RESIST, indicate that some young people struggle to benefit from this type of diet. Alternative options are required. We are currently investigating the use of severe energy restriction (very low energy diets; VLED) and an intermittent fasting diet. Preliminary findings from our research and clinical experience with these diets will be presented including our recent findings from ‘SHAKE-IT’, a pilot study using VLED in adolescents with type 2 diabetes.

About the presenter
Sarah Garnett (M Nut Diet, PhD) is a Senior Research Fellow/Dietitian in the Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes at the Children’s Hospital at Westmead and a conjoint A/Professor, Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health at the CHW Clinical School, University of Sydney. She completed her PhD in 2006, received an NHMRC Australian Clinical Research Fellowship to do her post-doc research between 2007 and 2010 and a Cancer Institute NSW Career Development Fellowship 2011-2013. Her research is primarily focused on developing evidence based interventions for the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In 2015 Sarah took 12 months leave to work in the Child and Maternal Health at the icddr,b in Dhaka Bangladesh where she was able to extend her interest in public health nutrition and epidemiology.


Metabolic and behavioural outcomes of excess consumption and withdrawal from sugar sweetened beverages

Tuesday 19 July 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenters: Dr Kieron Rooney and Professor Bob Boakes respectively from Exercise and Sports Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and the School of Psychology, Faculty of Science.

Summary of talk
Since 2010, Dr Kieron Rooney (Discipline of Exercise and Sport Science) and Professor Bob Boakes (School of Psychology) have led a series of experiments in which rats are provided with access to sugar-sweetened drinks. The rats consistently display impairments in cognitive processes dependent on healthy hippocampal function, as well as elevated adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance and fatty livers. This cross-disciplinary work was supported with ARC - Discovery Project funding from 2014 to extend their research into the effects of artificial sweeteners and their consumption on feeding behaviour leading to their current human trial on the behavioural effects of withdrawal from sugar sweetened beverages (ACTRN12615001004550).

This talk will present selected works from this sustained line of research in the rat, that focussed on some of the more popular questions raised in recent years, namely is fructose in beverages more toxic than glucose? Can we recover health by the simple removal of sugar sweetened beverages? And do artificial sweeteners lead to increased food intake and weight gain?

About the presenters
Kieron completed his PhD in the Department of Biochemistry, within the Faculty of Science at the University of Sydney in 2004. Kieron joined the Faculty of Health Sciences in 2003 as a lecturer in exercise physiology and biochemistry and was promoted to Senior Lecturer in 2012. During this time, Kieron’s research portfolio has included both human and small animal studies investigating the role of diet and physical activity on parameters of fuel storage and utilisation. A full list of grants and Publications can be found at http://sydney.edu.au/health-sciences/about/people/profiles/kieron.rooney.php

Bob was awarded his PhD in Psychology by Harvard University in 1967. Following academic positions at the University of Sussex in the UK, he was appointed McCaughey Professor of Psychology at the University of Sydney in 1989 and on retirement in 2005 was awarded the title of Emeritus Professor of Psychology. Retirement has enabled Bob to be a much more productive researcher than when he was a full-time academic. His core research area is in associative learning, but in collaboration with Kieron Bob’s research has increasingly focussed on topics at the intersection of psychology and nutrition. A full cv and list of publications can be found at http://www.psych.usyd.edu.au/staff/bobb/


Dietary Guidance: Has the evidence changed or have we changed?

Tuesday 26 July 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Professor Timothy Gill from the Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders and the Prevention Research Collaboration at the School of Public Health.

Summary of talk
It is a common complaint from the general public that nutritionists are always changing their mind about what constitutes good nutrition. One year carbohydrate is good for you and the next year we are told it is poison. Likewise fats that have been labelled bad are proclaimed good. Whilst a critical analysis of dietary recommendations over time indicate that guidance has remained relatively consistent, it is true that advice around some specific nutritional issues has moved. It is commonly assumed that defects in the levels of evidence or its interpretation have been responsible for the production of flawed nutrition advice which has been corrected later when more rigorous assessments have been applied to this data. However, it is quite possible that both the earlier nutrition guidance and the current amended versions are equally correct.

Changes in guidance may not reflect changes in evidence but rather changes over time in human physiology and the environment in which we live. It has long been recognised that interaction with our environment, other lifestyle behaviours and variations in our physiological or genetic makeup influence our nutritional requirements both at an individual and population level. It could be argued that in recent years, the environment in which we live and our state of energy balance (and their interaction) has altered dramatically creating different nutritional demands and altering physiological responses to food and nutrients. Thus nutritional recommendations around nutrients or specific foods such as sugar which may have been appropriate at one time point are no longer valid today.

About the presenter
Tim Gill is currently Professor of Public Health Nutrition at the Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders and Principal Research Fellow within the Prevention Research Collaboration at the School of Public Health. He has wide experience as an academic and within government departments and health agencies. His research interests are in the epidemiology of obesity and improving food environments and public guidance for the prevention and management of obesity both within Australia and the Asia-Pacific region.