The Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders

2015 Boden Institute Events and Courses Archive

23 June 2015 Dr Andrew Hoy
Investigating the links between breast cancer behaviour and obesity: the role adipocytes may play

4 June 2015 Dr Nick Fuller
The DIABEGG study – the effect of a high-egg diet on cardiovascular risk factors in people with diabetes

19 May 2015 Dr Athena Ka-Yuen Lock
Diabetes mellitus / obesity: current situation in Hong Kong - a model reflecting South East Asia

5 May 2015 Professor Ian Darnton-Hill AO
Micronutrients in Pregnancy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

28 April 2015 Dr Anthony Leeds
Evidence-based VLCD and LCD therapy for diabetes: cost effective, safe and predictable weight loss and maintenance, with sustained health benefit

16 April 2015 Associate Professor Nathalie Mathieu-Bolh
Calorie consciousness, social habits, and beverage taxes

17 March 2015 Professor Andrew Hill
What impact does obesity stigma have on the management of obesity?

5 March 2015 Dr Yan Yan Lam
Exploring the interrelationships between diet, the gut system and metabolic health


2011-2014 Boden Institute Events and Courses Archives

2014 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).

2013 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).

2012 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).

2011 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).


Investigating the links between breast cancer behaviour and obesity: the role adipocytes may play

Dr Hoy

Tuesday 23 June 2015 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Dr Andrew Hoy is the Helen and Robert Ellis Postdoctoral Research Fellow from the Sydney Medical School Foundation and Head of the Lipid Metabolism Laboratory in the Discipline of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute.

Summary of talk
Being obese reduces survival in breast cancer and this is independent of menopausal status. A key feature of obesity is altered adipocyte biology yet the role that adipocytes in an obese setting might play in altering breast cancer behaviour is yet to be defined. Dr Hoy’s lab has used cell culture strategies to investigate the interactions between adipocytes and breast cancer cells and the results of these studies will be presented.

About the presenter
Apart from Andrew's positions mentioned above in the Sydney Medical School Foundation and the School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, he is also an Honorary Associate with the Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders. Andrew received his BSc (Biomedical Sc.) and MSc (Research) at the University of Wollongong, PhD training at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research within the Diabetes and Obesity Research Program, and Post-Doctoral training at Monash University as a NHMRC Biomedical Australia Training Fellow. He returned to Sydney in 2012 to establish his independent research laboratory which has interests in lipid metabolism and how it is perturbed in obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer, including breast and prostate.


The DIABEGG study – the effect of a high-egg diet on cardiovascular risk factors in people with diabetes

Egg in an egg cup

Thursday 4 June 2015 12:00–1:00 pm

Presenter: Dr Nick Fuller is a Research Fellow in the Boden Institute at the University of Sydney.

Summary of talk
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. Therefore, interventions to manage T2DM and its complications are a priority. Despite the positive nutritional value of eggs, there is a negative perception toward egg consumption for people with T2DM. A number of epidemiological studies indicate that high egg consumption, though not associated with adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in the general population, may be associated with worse CVD outcomes in people with T2DM. However, the findings in such studies are affected by many confounding factors. For example, at the time that these epidemiological studies were being conducted, a public health campaign was advising people to limit their cholesterol intake, including their consumption of eggs. Individuals consuming more than six eggs per week at that time may have been less likely to be following healthy dietary and lifestyle advice in general. Currently, guidelines differ between countries regarding egg consumption and total dietary cholesterol intake. This study addresses the lack of good quality prospective data on the effects of high egg consumption in people with T2DM.

About the presenter
Dr Nick Fuller's background is in exercise physiology, nutrition and health economics. His PhD was completed on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of obesity treatment programmes for adults, whereby he received the Peter Bancroft Award for his efforts. He has an impressive publication record at this early stage of his career with several lead author publications in high impact journals. His work has looked at nutritional and medical interventions for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, shared care approaches between general practitioners and commercial weight loss providers, and the effects on appetite hormones with weight loss. Nick has developed a growing international reputation in the field of obesity.

Diabetes mellitus / obesity: current situation in Hong Kong - a model reflecting South East Asia

Tuesday 19 May 2015 1:00–2:00 pm

Presenter: Dr Athena Ka-Yuen Lock is an endocrinologist from the Tseung Kwan O Hospital in Hong Kong.

Summary of talk
Once considered a disease of the West, type 2 diabetes is now a global health hazard. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), approximately 285 million people suffer from diabetes in 2010, and this figure is expected to increase to 439 million by 2030. Of note, diabetes is spreading more rapidly in Asia than anywhere else in the world and more than 60% of the world's population with diabetes is of Asian origin. In view of its high prevalence, it is important to know how T2DM differs in Asians when compared to Caucasians (the so-called Asian phenotypes).

In this presentation, Athena will discuss these issues in terms of epidemiology, risk factors and complications.
Despite their smaller body build, Asians tend to accumulate more body fat and develop cardiovascular risk factors at a lower body weight/ smaller waist circumference than Caucasians. In light of such ethnic differences, both the World Health Organization (WHO) and IDF have adopted a different definition of overweight and obesity for Asians. Moreover, the selection criteria for bariatric/ metabolic surgery are also different.

About the presenter
Athena is an endocrinologist from Hong Kong. She practices full-time in the Department of Medicine at the Tseung Kwan O Hospital. Athena actively participates in a number of local academic organizations including Diabetes Hong Kong, Hong Kong Society of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Reproduction. Her special interest lies in studying the interaction between T2DM and obesity.


Micronutrients in Pregnancy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Professor Ian Darnton-Hill AO

Tuesday 5 May 2015 1:00–2:00 pm

Presenter: Professor Ian Darnton-Hill AO from the Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, The University of Sydney and the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, USA.

Summary of talk
Micronutrient malnutrition – deficiencies of vitamins and minerals - affects the majority of pregnant women in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC): globally, approximately 32 million pregnant women are anaemic, 19 million suffer from vitamin A deficiency, and millions suffer from insufficient iron, folate, zinc or iodine stores. WHO estimates that over 20 million babies are born low birth weight (<2500 g at birth), about 15 million are premature, and many more are born small for their gestational age, increasing their risk of morbidity and mortality during childhood.

This brief overview aims to identify the micronutrients likely to be deficient in women of reproductive age in LMIC, especially during pregnancy. Iron, iodine, folate and calcium are known for their roles in development of the foetus/neonate. Less clear effects of deficiencies of zinc, copper, magnesium and selenium have been reported, as well as vitamins B12, D and A, with the water-soluble vitamins generally less likely to be a problem. Epigenetic influences and the likely influence of micronutrient deficiencies on foetal origins of adult chronic diseases are currently being explored. With the increased needs of various vitamins and minerals during pregnancy, WHO has suggested that a multiple micronutrient supplement may be needed. In the meantime, increasing numbers of countries are fortifying cereals with iron, folic acid and often other micronutrients. Increased food and nutrition security, better coverage of antenatal care and availability of good obstetric care all need to be concomitant interventions.

About the presenter
Trained as a public health physician, Ian has had over 40 years of practical and academic experience with Helen Keller International, UNICEF, USAID and WHO. Areas of expertise span public health interventions, health policy, and analysis of national programmes, with an emphasis on public health nutrition, especially micronutrient programmes. He retired from the UN as Special Adviser to the UNICEF Executive Director on Child Hunger and Undernutrition in 2009. He had also been the WHO Nutrition Adviser for the Western Pacific Region and later Senior Global Health Leadership Fellow with WHO HQ. He is currently a Consultant and Adjunct Professor at the Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders at the University of Sydney, Australia, and the Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy, Tufts University, USA


Evidence-based VLCD and LCD therapy for diabetes: cost effective, safe and predictable weight loss and maintenance, with sustained health benefit

Image of low calorie diet sachets

Tuesday 28 April 2015 1:00–2:00 pm

Presenter: Dr Anthony Leeds is visiting senior fellow in the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey and visiting professor in the Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen.

Summary of Talk
Dietary energy restriction improves metabolic control in people with diabetes. This idea is recorded in documents from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. With rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, on a global scale, more therapeutic options are needed. Formula diet weight loss and maintenance programs may contribute increasingly for the following reasons:
(a) Formula VLCD and low-calorie diets (LCD, 800-1200kcal/d) enable the compliant patient to lose 1–2kg/week safely with metabolic improvement in glucose, insulin, blood lipids and blood pressure (Snel et al).
(b) Formula VLCD and LCD can be followed by effective maintenance interventions to achieve weight maintenance for up to 4 years (Christensen et al).
(c) Weight loss with formula VLCD can improve 5 out of 6 people with obstructive sleep apnoea (a common co-morbidity in obese people with diabetes) and ‘cure’ 1 in 10 people – an effect largely maintained for one year (Johansson et al).
(d) Formula VLCD and LCD can ‘switch-off’ or down-regulate obesity-associated inflammatory processes as demonstrated in elderly obese people with knee osteoarthritis (Ballegaard et al) and in those with psoriasis (Jensen et al; Geiker et al).

Major clinical trials in early type 2 diabetes; pre-diabetes (one arm of the PREVIEW study is currently taking place in Sydney, see: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01777893 and in insulin-treated diabetes are now underway.

References

About the Presenter
Anthony Leeds is visiting senior fellow in the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey and visiting professor in the Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen. He practices part-time in the NHS at the Central Middlesex Hospital in Diabetes and Endocrinology and at The Whittington Hospital within the North London Obesity Surgery Service. His current research interests concern the use of low energy diets and very low energy diets in weight management in clinical practice; he works with colleagues at the Parker Institute, Frederiksberg hospital, Copenhagen, where he is an honorary senior research fellow.

In 2010 and 2011 he contributed to the BBC web-site ‘scrubbing up’ series discussing obesity, sleep apnoea and road traffic accidents; the costs of obesity treatment with surgery and the need for training of doctors in obesity management. He was Senior Lecturer at King's College London until September 2007 and is now Medical Director of the Cambridge Weight Plan.

Recent publications


Calorie consciousness, social habits, and beverage taxes

Nathalie Mathieu-Bolh

Thursday 16 April 2015 12:00–1:00 pm

Presenter: Associate Professor Nathalie Mathieu-Bolh from the University of Vermont (USA)

Summary of the talk
The consumption of Sugar Sweetened Beverages is linked to obesity in children and adults. Not only is it a concern for public health professionals, but it is also a concern for economists who care about the social cost of obesity. What is the potential of taxes to reduce Sugar Sweetened Beverage consumption and body weight? To answer this question, Associate Professor Nathalie Mathieu-Bolh will firstly review the empirical and theoretical economic literature on this topic. Secondly, Nathalie will propose a new theoretical model for Sugar Sweetened Beverage consumption. The model captures the interactions between habits and calorie consciousness, which are important to understand Sugar Sweetened Beverage consumption and assess the effects of beverage taxes on consumption and body weight.

About the presenter
Nathalie Mathieu-Bolh is an Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Vermont (USA). Her expertise is in Public Finance and Macroeconomic Theory, with a concentration on optimal taxation and tax reforms. Her publications essentially relate to the welfare and distributional effects of capital income taxes, labour income taxes, and consumption taxes among income groups and generations. Nathalie's research has also consisted in modelling the interactions between health and the environment to better understand the effects of environmental tax reforms. Her most recent research focuses on the effects of food, ingredients, and beverage taxes on body weight.


What impact does obesity stigma have on the management of obesity?

Professor Andrew Hill

Tuesday 17 March 2015 1:00–2:00 pm

Presenter: Professor Andrew Hill is Head of the Academic Unit of Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences and Director of Student Progression at Leeds University School of Medicine.

Summary of the talk
The rise in interest in anti-fat bias parallels the recognition of obesity as a public health problem and a general failure to bring about change. Calls to ‘wage war’ on obesity and using stigma to change obesity-relevant behaviour have been challenged on human rights and social justice grounds. This presentation will address a series of questions. Namely, what is anti-fat bias? Who holds anti-fat attitudes and at what age do these attitudes become apparent? What is the resultant experience of those who are obese? What are the consequences of anti-fat bias? And what should our professional response be?

The main components of anti-fat bias are dislike (the aesthetics of appearance), judgements of health (weight as a metric of health; weight change indicative of health improvement/decline), and morality (blame, lack of willpower). The overarching emotion is fear, as the stereotyping of fat is a mainly negative portrayal of character, social exclusion, and poor health. Such views are widely held, implicitly by most, and explicitly by the majority of general public, health professionals and people who are obese. Anticipated and actual discrimination and victimization experiences are evidenced in questionnaires, diary records and qualitative interviews with children and adults who are obese. The associated disparity and disadvantage is evidenced in all areas of life; education, the workplace, health care, socially, and in increased psychological distress. Behavioural justice sits within a broader social justice view of equality and valuing diversity. Specifically, it points to inequalities in access to health-promoting resources. I will argue that the obesogenic environment requires attitudinal as well as physical adjustment.

About the presenter
Andrew Hill is Professor of Medical Psychology, Head of the Academic Unit of Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences, and Director of Student Progression at Leeds University School of Medicine. Andrew is also Visiting Professor at Sydney Medical School for 3 years from 2015. He was Chairman of the UK Association for the Study of Obesity from 1999-2002 and is currently a member of the UK Department of Health’s Obesity Review Group. Over the last 25 years or so his research interests have ranged from human appetite control to the development of weight and shape concerns in children, and the variety of psychological issues inherent in obesity and eating disorders.


Exploring the interrelationships between diet, the gut system and metabolic health

Thursday 5 March 2015 12:00–1:00 pm

Presenter: Dr Yan Yan Lam from the Boden Institute and the Charles Perkins Centre

Summary of the talk
There is a growing body of literature that suggests that the gut, in particular its microbes, is integral to metabolic health. While many diseases have been associated with a state of dysbiosis, the drivers of the alternations in microbiota and the extent to which these changes are causes, or consequences of metabolic sequelae is unclear. Dr Yan Yan Lam and her colleagues hypothesised that dietary factors could modify gut health, primarily via changes in the gut microbes, and subsequently impact on systemic functions. In this seminar, she will describe a series of rodent studies that she conducted at the Boden Institute as part of an NHMRC-funded project that investigated the role of the gut in metabolic dysfunctions in the context of diet-induced obesity. Yan will also provide a summary of her work during her two-year training at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center in the United States that primarily focused on using whole-room respiratory chambers to investigate the effect of diet on energy expenditure in humans. Finally, Yan will briefly describe the work that she will undertake in her new position at the Boden Institute, that involves a Diabetes Australia-funded project looking at gut permeability, diet and glucose homeostasis in humans, and potential new collaborations to investigate the mechanisms by which dietary factors impact on metabolic wellbeing.

About the presenter
Dr Yan Yan Lam is a Postdoctoral Research Associate within the Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders. Having a background in clinical dietetics, Yan pursued her interest in mechanisms by which diet impacts on health by specialising in basic science research using cell culture and animal models. Upon completion of her first postdoctoral training with Professor Len Storlien at the Boden Institute, Yan was invited to further her training under the mentorship of Professor Eric Ravussin, a world expert in the conduct of translational research in obesity and diabetes, at the prestigious Pennington Biomedical Research Center in the United States. During this time she acquired highly specialised skills in measuring gut parameters and metabolic phenotyping in humans. Yan has recently joined the Charles Perkins Centre and is aiming to establish her niche of expertise and develop her standing as a translational researcher in the area of gut-metabolic health interactions.