The Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders

2016 Boden Institute Events and Courses Archive


9 February 2016 Professor Stephan Rössner
Discrimination of obesity in society


16 February 2016 Associate Professor Grant Brinkworth
Long-term health and safety effects of very low carbohydrate diets for diabetes management


1 March 2016 Professor Martin R. Yeomans
Satiety: the integration of cognition, sensory and nutritional signals


15 March 2016 Professor Tim Lambert
Nihilism, neglect, and premature mortality: the Collaborative Centre for Cardiometabolic Health in Psychosis


22 March 2016 Professor Andrew Hill
The psychology of food craving


12 April 2016 Dr Shahadat Uddin
Trends in obesity research over a 20 year period: what can we learn when complex systems analysts and obesity researchers work together?


2011-2015 Boden Institute Events and Courses Archives


2015 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).

2014 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).

2013 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).

2012 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).

2011 Events and Courses Archive may be viewed here (PDF file).


Seminar participants

EVENT DESCRIPTIONS

Discrimination of obesity in society

Tuesday 9 February 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Professor Stephan Rössner is Professor Emeritus of health behaviour research at the Karolinska Institute.

Summary of talk
Access to food has once been a survival strategy and the potential to maintain an excess energy store an advantage, when food shortage and starvation were part of every day life. Stone-age sculptures show grossly obese women as something very attractive.

The early years of Hollywood films used obese actors as their favourites to laugh at. Obese people were ridiculed as they were seen as sloppy, gluttonous and out of control. A film director once said ”any fat man is funny, especially when he is eating spaghetti.” With increasing knowledge about the health risks of overweight interest in obese actors was lost after some 20 years. Numerous data show that obese individuals are ostracized in society, from childhood and onwards. Obese individuals get lower salaries, higher health insurance costs, more expensive house renting, and less qualified tasks than normal weight subjects.

One would believe that the health care system would handle obesity - like any other disease - professionally and in a respectful way, but this is not the case. Doctors, nurses, dieticians, psychologists and physiotherapists often treat obese patients with scorn. In a sense this is understandable since compliance is low and treatment results far from satisfying. Education programs have been developed to train students of all kinds to treat the obese with the respect and compassion they deserve. After all, nobody in modern society wants to be obese and those unfortunately afflicted by the clash between stone-age genes and the modern ”toxic environment” need whatever support can be given rather than negative attitude with which they are often met.

About the presenter
Stephan Rössner MD, PhD is Professor Emeritus of health behaviour research at the Karolinska Institute and founder of the Obesity Unit, the academic centre as well as the clinical treatment program. After an initial clinical training as a cardiologist, Stephan developed the first Swedish clinical centre for treatment of severe obesity and its complications in Stockholm. He founded the Swedish Society for Obesity Research, and was President of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 1998-2002, which he also served in different capacities for more than 20 years.

Stephan has published more than 660 papers on cardiovascular medicine, nutrition, medical education and communication and long term treatment strategies for obesity and also contributed in a number of international textbooks on nutrition related matters. He is the present Director of the Royal Swedish Gastronomic Academy and the past President of the Swedish Academy for Culinary Sciences.

Stephan has published numerous cooking books, TV programs and material for the lay public. He has also communicated life style matters in humoristic ways as an actor on stage and as a stand-up comedian.


Long-term health and safety effects of very low carbohydrate diets for diabetes management

Tuesday 16 February 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Associate Professor Grant Brinkworth is a Principal Research Scientist at CSIRO – Food and Nutrition with expertise in nutrition and exercise science.

Summary of talk
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a National Research Priority with enormous health and socioeconomic costs. Diabetes related comorbidities are underpinned by poor glucose control that is greatly influenced by diet composition. Current clinical practice guidelines advocate a low fat, high unrefined carbohydrate (HC) diet for T2D management. However, this recommendation has been questioned following advancements in understanding that carbohydrate restriction and higher intakes of protein and unsaturated fat improve blood glucose control and cardiovascular disease risk.

Based on evidence available in nutrition research, we have devised an eating pattern that markedly limits carbohydrates, increases protein and unsaturated fat, and is nutritious with the potential to improve blood glucose control and reduce cardiovascular disease risk to a greater extent than the traditional HC dietary approach. This presentation will discuss the findings of a large, long-term, well-controlled NH&MRC-funded randomised controlled clinical study comparing the effects of consumption of either a traditional HC diet or the very low carbohydrate, high unsaturated fat diet while participating in a structured exercise program on multiple health outcomes. Early findings indicated that independent of any change in weight, the blood glucose profile improves substantially in the very low carbohydrate group. The diet is well tolerated and the need for medication is also reduced to a greater extent. If improvements can be sustained, then this will have implications for dietary guidelines for the management of T2D, with better outcomes and an overall reduction in health care costs.

About the presenter
Associate Professor Grant Brinkworth is a Principal Research Scientist at CSIRO – Food and Nutrition with expertise in nutrition and exercise science. He is responsible for leading several large-scale, clinical studies evaluating the effects of dietary patterns, foods, nutritional components and physical exercise on weight loss, metabolic disease risk management, and physical and mental functioning and performance in healthy and clinical populations, including type 2 diabetes.

Grant has acquired greater than $6.5 million of combined nationally competitive health and industry funding to conduct this research and was awarded a $1.3 million research grant from the NH&MRC to conduct a large clinical study to evaluate the role of very low carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes management. He has published over 65 peer reviewed journal papers on the topic of diet and lifestyle management of obesity and related disease.


Satiety: the integration of cognition, sensory and nutritional signals

Tuesday 1 March 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Professor Martin R. Yeomans is Professor of Experimental Psychology at the University of Sussex, UK.

Summary of talk
Satiety, the suppression of appetite by the effects of ingested nutrients, is critical to the long-term control of body-size: if people over-ingest at one meal, provided that the ingested food suppresses subsequent eating then overall intake can be regulated. But the worldwide increase in obesity clearly suggests that satiety is ineffective in the context of modern lifestyles with abundant access to palatable foods. Understanding the fundamental processes that drive satiety therefore open opportunities to reformulate products to maximise the likelihood that consumers experience appropriate satiety, so aiding weight control.

Although a great deal of focus on satiety has explored physiological effects of ingestion on gut hormones etc, a simple model of satiety based on gut hormone release cannot explain a wide range of behavioural satiety data. There is ample evidence that beliefs about the effects of products and their sensory properties all modify satiety responses, and this talk highlights recent work at Sussex that has elucidated some of these effects.

About the presenter
Professor Martin R. Yeomans is Professor of Experimental Psychology in the School of Psychology at the University of Sussex, UK. He has produced over 90 peer-reviewed publications, has a greater than 2500 lifetime citation, and has been awarded more than £2.5M in research, mainly as research grants funded by BBSRC.

Martin's research explores psychological and physiological aspects of human ingestion, and involves a large number of related projects, linked by the overall aim of elucidating psychological and physiological controls of appetite. Current areas of interest include:
- Understanding appetite and satiety
- Individual differences
- Flavour perception and learning
- Psychopharmacology


Nihilism, neglect, and premature mortality: the Collaborative Centre for Cardiometabolic Health in Psychosis

Tuesday 15 March 2016 12:00–1:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Professor Tim Lambert is Professor of Psychiatry at Concord Clinical School at the University of Sydney.

Summary of talk
This seminar will outline the dire statistics regarding early death in those with severe mental illness and describe the innovative (and unique) Concord Centre for Cardiometabolic Health in Psychosis (ccCHiP) clinical service model at the Charles Perkins Centre (and Sydney Local Health District more broadly) as a practical solution. ccCHiP is a translational vehicle to drive services towards integrated whole person health care combining neuropsychiatry, clinical pharmacology, endocrinology, cardiology, dentistry, dietetics, exercise physiology, and sleep medicine.

About the presenter
Tim Lambert, BSc, MBBS, PhD, FRANZCP, is Professor of Psychiatry at Concord Clinical School at the University of Sydney in Australia. In addition, he fulfills clinical duties for Sydney Local Health Network as Director of the Centre of Excellence in Relapse Prevention in Psychosis (CERP), and at the Concord Centre for Cardiometabolic Health in Psychosis (ccCHiP).

Tim has a portfolio of interests in translational aspects of clinical neuropharmacology and neurosciences. These span clinical psychosis research, outcomes research, service delivery models, training, and education. His current interests focus on:
- services research (pharmacoepidemiology, developing novel relapse prevention, treatment resistance, and cardiometabolic services for the seriously mentally ill);
- the clinical pharmacology of LAI antipsychotics (first and second generation) and of the second-generation antipsychotics, particularly risk-benefit aspects and the applied clinical pharmacology of antipsychotic switching;
- physical comorbidities of psychotic disorders, especially cardiometabolic syndromes; and
- incomplete recovery.

Social aspects, particularly the role of acculturation on clinical phenotypes permeate all facets of these programmes.


The psychology of food craving

Tuesday 22 March 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Professor Andrew Hill is Head of the Academic Unit of Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences, and Director of Student Progression at Leeds University School of Medicine, UK.

Summary of talk
Food cravings continue to both fascinate and divide opinion. Their portrayal juxtaposes quirky food choices (mostly by women) with compulsions that trigger unplanned overeating. Food cravings are central to the representation of food addiction, itself a highly controversial concept. For some authors, food cravings are expressions of need for specific nutrients. Consuming the foods and other substances craved is functional in addressing some biological imbalance. For others, the functionality of cravings lies in emotional
regulation. This representation recognises the complex role that food,
especially food with high pleasure value, plays in people’s lives. So, what does research tell us about food craving?

Food cravings are characterised by their intensity and their specificity. They are extremely common experiences, reported by the majority, and reflect the food environment of those who crave. Food cravings are closely associated with liking; people crave the foods they like to eat. But cravings are not synonymous with increased food intake. The range of assessments that measure food cravings reflects some of the uncertainty about their nature. Descriptive approaches to food cravings offer most in terms of understanding the nature and psychological functions of these experiences. The focus will be on food cravings during pregnancy, weight management, and after bariatric surgery. This functional view also reveals the potential for psychological approaches in the management of food cravings.

About the presenter
Andrew Hill is Professor of Medical Psychology, Head of the Academic Unit of Psychiatry & Behavioural Sciences, and Director of Student Progression at Leeds University School of Medicine. Andrew is also Visiting Professor at Sydney Medical School for 3 years from 2015. He was Chairman of the UK Association for the Study of Obesity from 1999-2002 and is currently a member of the UK Department of Health’s Obesity Review Group. Over the last 25 years or so his research interests have ranged from human appetite control to the development of weight and shape concerns in children, and the variety of psychological issues inherent in obesity and eating disorders.


Trends in obesity research over a 20 year period: what can we learn when complex systems analysts and obesity researchers work together?

Tuesday 12 April 2016 1:00–2:00 pm
FREE SEMINAR

Presenter: Dr Shahadat Uddin is from the Complex Systems Group at the University of Sydney.

Summary of talk
Understanding emerging areas of a multidisciplinary research field is crucial for researchers, policymakers and other stakeholders. One good way to do that is to look at the bibliographic information embedded in the scholarly publications. This information are normally indexed and made available to public by different websites (e.g., Google Scholar), online digital libraries (e.g., Scopus, PubMed etc.). However, there exists a great hindrance in extracting the crucial information and present them in understandable manner due to availability of vast amount of data. Especially for a multidisciplinary research area like obesity, there is a significant gap in understanding properly how the research has evolved in last two decades to address the global issue of obesity.

To understand the trends in Obesity domain, researchers from Sydney University’s ‘Complex Systems Research Group’ and obesity researchers from ‘Sydney School of Public Health’ have been collaborating for the last two years. They have organised a large dataset consisting of all the scholarly publication (n = 117,340) metadata for 20-years’ period indexed by Scopus. These metadata include author(s) information, publication place, year, funding information, associated keywords, affiliation and citation information. Using complex system and network analysis measures, they tried to explore various trends within the subdomains of obesity. The findings show that output in global obesity research has doubled in every five years. Collaboration between different countries, institutions and disciplines also showed steady growth. The result is then reviewed by obesity researchers to provide interpretation for wider range of audiences. The overall trends analysed so far are:
1. The evolution of different obesity subdomains through author-keyword analysis.
2. Regional and organisational research output in terms of scholarly impact (citation count).
3. Different levels of collaboration trends (e.g., countries, institutions and disciplines).

Overall the study shows the potential of collaboration between network scientists and obesity experts and how it can reveal trends from unmined data. This research can help to make informed decisions and aid research productivity across geographically dispersed locations. It can also significantly help scholars within the obesity domain by giving them structured knowledge of the domain, rather than relying only on intuitive understanding of the field.

About the presenter
Dr Shahadat Uddin develops modelling and analysing approaches for exploring longitudinal complex networks. Shahadat’s research has addressed how changing actors' network positions affect their performance in different longitudinal complex networks, especially in complex collaboration networks among healthcare professionals and longitudinal scientific workforce networks. He holds a PhD in network science research area from the University of Sydney.