Professor Karen Ginn

Professor
Discipline of Anatomy &
Histology
School of Medical Sciences

Telephone +61 2 9351 9352
Fax +61 2 9351 9520

Map

Biographical details

Professor Ginn is a musculoskeletal anatomist in the Discipline of Anatomy & Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Heealth, University of Sydney. She teaches functional, applied anatomy to various health professional groups and is a musculoskeletal physiotherapist in part time private practice. She is involved in research related to the assessment and treatment of shoulder dysfunction including evaluating the validity and reliability of components of the physical examination of the shoulder. She has approximately 50 publications in such journals as Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, Physical Therapy, Journal of Physiotherapy, Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine ,Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology and Clinical Anatomy. She is regularly invited to present at conferences both nationally and internationally and is a Visiting Lecturer at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden and an Adjunct Associate Professor at the University of Tasmania. She is currently a member of the Board of the International Congress of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists.

Teaching and supervision

FUNCTIONAL REHABILITATION OF SHOULDERMUSCLES

Evidence & Application

Course Presenter

Professor Karen Ginn PhD, GDManipTher, MHPEd

Discipline of Anatomy & Histology, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney

Professor Ginn teaches functional, applied musculoskeletal anatomy & is a musculoskeletal physiotherapist in part-time private practice. She is involved in research related to the assessment & treatment of shoulder dysfunction including: clinical trials investigating the efficacy of conservative & surgical treatment for shoulder dysfunction; electromyographic (EMG) studies investigating shoulder muscle activation patterns in normal subjects & patients with shoulder dysfunction; EMG studies evaluating shoulder exercises; studies evaluating the validity & reliability of components of the physical examination of the shoulder; experimental shoulder pain studies; investigations of shoulder stiffness & cortical changes associated with shoulder pain; prevention of shoulder pain in community dwelling elderly populations & at-risk professional groups; & musculoskeletal profiling of the shoulder in swimmers.

INTRODUCTORY COURSE

Course Objectives

Exercise is the mainstay of conservative treatment for shoulder dysfunction. However, evidence to support the efficacy of specific exercises for different categories of shoulder dysfunction is limited leaving clinicians with the dilemma of how to choose effective, efficient exercises for their patients with shoulder dysfunction. This course will explore a rationale, evidence-based approach to determining & progressing patient-specific therapeutic shoulder exercises.

Specifically at the end of this course participants will be able to:-

  • critically evaluate the contribution of the current diagnostic classification system, imaging procedures & special orthopaedic tests in directing effective treatment for shoulder dysfunction
  • critically evaluate the evidence in support of surgery & active (exercises) & passive conservative treatment for shoulder pain
  • critically evaluate the functional anatomy of the normal shoulder joint in particular the:
    • relative contribution of active & passive stabilising structures
    • specific mechanisms whereby rotator cuff (RC) muscles contribute to shoulder joint movement & stability
    • role of the scapula & axioscapular muscles in optimising shoulder joint & shoulder muscle function
    • multiple roles muscles perform, & the level of muscle co-ordination required, in normal shoulder region function
  • critically evaluate commonly used methods of assessing & treating shoulder muscle dysfunction
  • incorporate recent evidence & functional anatomical principles into the clinical reasoning process to aid in:
    • understanding the anatomical basis for the presenting shoulder symptoms
    • determining the most appropriate exercise rehabilitation strategy
    • progressing therapeutic exercises in a functionally appropriate manner
  • investigate alternative methods of assessing & restoring shoulder function that better reflect normal functional anatomy

Course Structure

  • two day course – 9am to 4pm each day
    • Day 1 lecture/discussion format:
      • exploration of recent research into shoulder muscle function
      • critical evaluation of current physiotherapy assessment & treatment of shoulder dysfunction
    • Day 2 practical format:
      • critical evaluation of the functional anatomical basis of current physiotherapy assessment & treatment of shoulder dysfunction
      • exploration of alternative methods of assessing & restoring shoulder function that better reflect normal functional anatomy
      • application of recent evidence & functional anatomical principles to the clinical reasoning process to determine the most appropriate exercise strategy for patients with shoulder dysfunction

Course Fees

Once University overhead fees & catering costs are paid all remaining monies raised from fees paid to attend “Functional Rehabiltation of Shoulder Muscles – evidence & application” courses will be used to advance research conducted by the Shoulder Research Group in the Faculty of Medicine & Health at the University of Sydney.

  • Introductory Course $A750:00
  • Master Class $A400.00
  • Introductory Course + Master Class $A1,000.00

Background Information

The shoulder joint is an extremely mobile, multiaxial ball & socket joint, the function of which is to facilitate maximum use of the hand. In order to achieve this extensive range of motion, the structure of the shoulder joint is characterised by minimal passive constraint. Consequently, passive structures do not significantly contribute to shoulder joint stability: the size differential between the glenoid fossa & the humeral head minimise the contribution of articular contact to joint stability; the joint capsule is thin & lax to facilitate large range of movement; & the shoulder joint has relatively few ligaments to restrict joint motion.

One of the consequences of these modifications to bony & fibrous structures of the shoulder joint which permit its large range of movement is the unparalleled reliance on muscles to maintain functional shoulder joint stability. Because of their horizontal orientation to the shoulder joint line & their intimate anatomical relationship with the shoulder joint capsule, the most important muscles performing this dynamic stabilising role at the shoulder joint are the four muscles of the musculotendinous rotator cuff (RC): subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus & teres minor. The RC muscles take origin from the mobile scapula & their tendons splay out & interdigitate to form a common, continuous insertion into the lateral shoulder joint capsule & onto the tubercles of the humerus.

The traditional view of the role of the RC muscles to provide functional shoulder joint stability is that they contribute in equal proportions to compress the humeral head into the glenoid fossa during all shoulder movements to limit humeral head translation, as well as to depress the humeral head to prevent it translating superiorly due to deltoid activity. However, recent evidence that the RC muscles are recruited at significantly different activity levels during shoulder flexion & extension suggests that simultaneous recruitment of all the RC muscles in equal proportions is not an essential requirement to achieve dynamic shoulder joint stability (Wattanaprakornkul et al 2011a, 2011b). This research indicated that different parts of the RC function to stabilise the shoulder joint by counterbalancing potential anterior & posterior translation due to flexor & extensor muscle activity respectively.

Another traditional view ie that the RC muscles are functioning as stabilisers of the shoulder joint during all shoulder movements, may also require revision. Recent research indicates that maximal isometric shoulder adduction tasks are associated with minimal to low levels of RC muscle activity suggesting that either activity in shoulder adductor muscles does not produce translation forces on the humeral head, or that muscles other than the RC are functioning to stabilise the shoulder joint during adduction (Reed et al 2010).

In order to achieve full range movement of the shoulder co-ordinated movement of the scapula with the humerus is required to position the glenoid fossa for optimal articulation with the humeral head throughout range, as well as to maintain the mechanical advantage of the scapulohumeral muscles, including the RC muscles. It is the role of axioscapular muscles to accurately position the scapula for optimal articular surface & muscle alignment. However, because the mobile scapula provides the origin of important shoulder muscles, including the RC muscles, activation of these muscles has implications for axioscapular muscle function. Contraction of the RC has the potential to move the scapula away from the midline, requiring co-ordinated contraction of axioscapular muscles to maintain the correct scapula position, ie to stabilise the scapula to enable optimal RC function.

Complex, co-ordinated muscle function is the most important requirement to achieve full range movement & maintain functional stability in the shoulder region. Accurate knowledge of the complexity of these muscle mechanisms is necessary to provide the detailed sound functional anatomical basis to inform the clinical reasoning processes underpinning physiotherapy assessment & treatment of the shoulder. Re-evaluation of current assessment & treatment strategies at the shoulder in light of recent evidence regarding the stabiliser function of the RC & axioscapular muscles, is likely to improve outcomes for patients with shoulder dysfunction.

References

· Wattanaprakornkul D, Cathers I, Halaki M, Ginn KA. The rotator cuff muscles have a direction specific recruitment pattern during flexion & extension exercises. J Sc Med Sport. 2011a;14:376-382.

· Wattanaprakornkul D, Halaki M, Boettcher C, Cathers I, Ginn KA comprehensive analysis of muscle recruitment patterns during shoulder flexion: an electromyographic study. Clin Anatomy. 2011b;24(6):619-626.

· Reed D, Halaki M, Ginn KA. The rotator cuff muscles are activated at low levels during shoulder adduction: an experimantal study. J Physiother. 2010;56(4):259-264.

MASTER CLASS

Course Description

Enrolment in this Master Class is available to those who have completed the two day Introductory Course conducted by Professor Ginn entitled “Functional Rehabilitation of the Shoulder – Evidence & Application”.

Exercise is the mainstay of conservative treatment for shoulder dysfunction. However, evidence to support the efficacy of specific exercises for different categories of shoulder dysfunction is limited leaving clinicians with the dilemma of how to choose effective, efficient exercises for their patients with shoulder dysfunction. This Master Class will build on the information presented in the pre-requisite “Introductory Functional Rehabilitation of Shoulder Muscles – evidence & application” course to explore a rationale, evidence-based approach to determining & progressing patient-specific therapeutic shoulder exercises.

Specifically at the end of this course particpants will have gained advanced skills in incorporating recent evidence & functional anatomical principles into the clinical reasoning process to aid in:

  • understanding the anatomical basis for the presenting shoulder symptoms
  • determining the most appropriate exercise rehabilitation strategy
  • progressing therapeutic exercises in a functionally appropriate manner

Course structure

The Master Class is a one day course – 9am to 4pm. It will utilise a case study format to illustrate this evidenced-based clinical reasoning approach to the selection & progression of patient-specific exercise programmes. The course will begin with a summary presentation of recent evidence on the function of shoulder muscles, particularly the stabiliser function of the rotator cuff & axioscapular muscles. The validity & reliability of clinical evidence gained from the patient’s diagnosis, radiographic findings & physical examination findings will then be explored to evaluate their role in informing an evidence-based clinical reasoning process to identify the specific muscle dysfunction underlying the presenting shoulder symptoms in order to select & progress appropriate therapeutic exercises/s. Case studies of patients with symptoms of shoulder pain, stiffness & instability will be explored in sporting & non-athletic populations.

Course Fees

Once University overhead fees & catering costs are paid all remaining monies raised from fees paid to attend “Functional Rehabiltation of Shoulder Muscles – evidence & application” courses will be used to advance research conducted by the Shoulder Research Group in the Faculty of Medicine & Health at the University of Sydney..

  • Introductory Course $A750:00
  • Master Class $A400.00
  • Introductory Course + Master Class $A1,000.00


Current projects

  • clinical trial investigating the efficacy of surgical treatment for patients with atraumatic shoulder instability
  • electromyographic (EMG) studies investigating shoulder muscle activation patterns in normal subjects and patients with shoulder dysfunction
  • EMG studies evaluating muscle recruitment patterns during shoulder exercises
  • studies evaluating the validity and reliability of components of the physical examination of the shoulder
  • experimental shoulder pain studies
  • investigations into the contribution of active stiffness to the clinical presentation of frozen shoulder
  • studies to determine the contribution of perceptual changes in patients with shoulder pain
  • the development of clinical decision algorithms to inform the treatment of shoulder pain
  • studies investigating the relationship between shoulder rotation range of motion and strength in elite swimming athletes
  • EMG evaluation of upper limb muscle recruitment during stone knapping
  • evaulation of the validity of using surface EMG to investigate shoulder muscle function
  • prevention of shoulder pain in the community dwelling elderly population and at risk professional groups

Associations

  • Past President Shoulder & Elbow Physiotherapists Australasia (SEPA)
  • SEPA representative on Board of the International Congress of Shoulder & Elbow Therapists
  • member Australian Physiotherapy Association

International links

Belgium

(University of Ghent) I am a research collaborator on a study investigating the validity of shoulder electromyographic methodology

Ireland

(European Co-operation in Science & Technology) I am one of three invited international representatives on a project entitled “Shoulder pain in Europe: optimizing management across the lifespan” co-ordinated by Dr Karen McCreesh from the University of Limerick, Ireland

Sweden

(University of Gothenburg) Visiting lecturer at the University of Gothenburg where I have designed and teach a subject entitled "Physiotherapy and Shoulder Rehabilitation" in the MSc in Physiotherapy program in The Sahlgrenska Akademy, Department of Neuroscence and Physiology Section for Health and Rehabilitation-Physiotherapy. In 2019 this course will be offered as an international European course.

United Kingdom

(Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital London) I am a research collaborator on a randomised controlled clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of surgery in the treatment of atraumatic shoulder instability.

United Kingdom

(University of Hertfordshire) I am a research collaborator on a project investigating the pathoanatomy of frozen shoulder syndrome

Selected grants

2014

  • The BEST at Home pragmatic fall prevention program: effectiveness, cost effectiveness and implementation; Sherrington C, Furber S, Bauman A, Howard K, Tiedemann A, Van Den Dolder P, Ginn K; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Partnership Projects.

2006

  • A comparison of shoulder muscle function in patients with rotator cuff tears and age-matched control subjects; Ginn K; Internal Research Grant Allocations/Cumberland.

2005

  • A Randomised, Controlled, Clinical Trial To Evaluate The Efficacy Of Passive Joint Mobilisation Applied To The Shoulder Region Joints For The Treatment Of Shoulder Pain; Ginn K, Herbert R; Physiotherapy Research Foundation/Project Support.

2003

  • Rotator cuff muscle activity during shoulder rotation exercises; Ginn K; University of Sydney/Internal Research Grant Allocations - Cumberland.

Selected publications

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Book Chapters

  • Lewis, J., Ginn, K. (2015). Rotator Cuff tendinopathy and subacromial pain syndrome. In G Jull, A Moore, D Falla, J Lewis, C McCarthy, M Sterling (Eds.), Grieve's Modern Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy, (pp. 563-567). Edinburgh: Elsevier.
  • Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2012). Normalization of EMG Signals: To Normalize or Not to Normalize and What to Normalize to? In Garnesh R. Naik (Eds.), Computational Intelligence in Electromyography Analysis - A Perspective on Current Applications and Future Challenges, (pp. 175-194). Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia: InTech Open Access Publishers (peer reviewed). [More Information]

Journals

  • Hollmann, L., Halaki, M., Kamper, S., Haber, M., Ginn, K. (2018). Does muscle guarding play a role in range of motion loss in patients with frozen shoulder? Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, 37, 64-68. [More Information]
  • McLaine, S., Ginn, K., Fell, J., Bird, M. (2018). Isometric shoulder strength in young swimmers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21(1), 35-39. [More Information]
  • McLaine, S., Ginn, K., Fell, J., Bird, M. (2018). Scapular upward rotation position is symmetrical in swimmers without current shoulder pain. Physical Therapy in Sport, 29, 9-13. [More Information]
  • Reed, D., Cathers, I., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2018). Shoulder muscle activation patterns and levels differ between open and closed-chain abduction. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21(5), 462-466. [More Information]
  • Bates, A., Furber, S., Tiedemann, A., Ginn, K., van den Dolder, P., Howard, K., Bauman, A., Chittenden, C., Franco, L., Kershaw, M., Sherrington, C. (2018). Trial Protocol: Home-based exercise programs to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling older people: study protocol for the BEST (Balance Exercise Strength Training) at Home randomised, controlled trial. Journal of Physiotherapy, 64(2), 121. [More Information]
  • Holt, K., Boettcher, C., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2017). Humeral torsion and shoulder rotation range of motion parameters in elite swimmers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(5), 469-474. [More Information]
  • Ginn, K., Reed, D., Jones, C., Downes, A., Cathers, I., Halaki, M. (2017). Is subscapularis recruited in a similar manner during shoulder internal rotation exercises and belly press and lift off tests? Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(6), 566-571. [More Information]
  • Breckenridge, J., McAuley, J., Butler, D., Stewart, H., Moseley, G., Ginn, K. (2017). Reply to the letter to the Editor �Re: The development of a shoulder specific left/right judgement task: Validity & reliability�. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, 30, e88-e89. [More Information]
  • Breckenridge, J., McAuley, J., Butler, D., Stewart, H., Moseley, G., Ginn, K. (2017). The development of a shoulder specific left/right judgement task: Validity & reliability. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, 28, 39-45. [More Information]
  • Reed, D., Cathers, I., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2016). Does changing the plane of abduction influence shoulder muscle recruitment patterns in healthy individuals? Manual Therapy, 21, 63-68. [More Information]
  • Reed, D., Cathers, I., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2016). Does load influence shoulder muscle recruitment patterns during scapular plane abduction? Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(9), 755-760. [More Information]
  • McLaine, S., Ginn, K., Kitic, C., Fell, J., Bird, M. (2016). The Reliability of Strength Tests Performed In Elevated Shoulder Positions Using a Hand-Held Dynamometer. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 2016 (TECHNICAL REPORT 20), 1-4. [More Information]
  • Klintberg, I., Cools, A., Holmgren, T., Holzhausen, A., Johansson, K., Maenhout, A., Moser, J., Spunton, V., Ginn, K. (2015). Consensus for physiotherapy for shoulder pain. International Orthopaedics, 39(4), 715-720. [More Information]
  • Ginn, K., Halaki, M. (2015). Do surface electrode recordings validly represent latissimus dorsi activation patterns during shoulder tasks? Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 25(1), 8-13. [More Information]
  • Lewis, J., McCreesh, K., Roy, J., Ginn, K. (2015). Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy: Navigating the Diagnosis-Management Conundrum. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 45(11), 923-937. [More Information]
  • Hackett, L., Reed, D., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2014). Assessing the validity of surface electromyography for recording muscle activation patterns from serratus anterior. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 24(2), 221-227. [More Information]
  • Jaggi, A., Alexander, S., Herbert, R., Funk, L., Ginn, K. (2014). Does surgery followed by physiotherapy improve short and long term outcome for patients with atraumatic shoulder instability compared with physiotherapy alone? - protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 15, 1-6. [More Information]
  • Reed, D., Cathers, I., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2013). Does supraspinatus initiate shoulder abduction? Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 23(2), 425-429. [More Information]
  • Tardo, D., Halaki, M., Cathers, I., Ginn, K. (2013). Rotator Cuff Muscles Perform Different Functional Roles During Shoulder External Rotation Exercises. Clinical Anatomy, 26(2), 236-243. [More Information]
  • Rickert, D., Halaki, M., Ginn, K., Barrett, M., Ackermann, B. (2013). The use of fine-wire EMG to investigate shoulder muscle recruitment patterns during cello bowing: The results of a pilot study. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 23(6), 1261-1268. [More Information]
  • Wattanaprakornkul, D., Halaki, M., Boettcher, C., Cathers, I., Ginn, K. (2011). A Comprehensive Analysis of Muscle Recruitment Patterns During Shoulder Flexion: An Electromyographic Study. Clinical Anatomy, 24(5), 619-626. [More Information]
  • Wattanaprakornkul, D., Halaki, M., Cathers, I., Ginn, K. (2011). Direction-specific recruitment of rotator cuff muscles during bench press and row. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 21(6), 1041-1049. [More Information]
  • Yiasemides, R., Halaki, M., Cathers, I., Ginn, K. (2011). Does Passive Mobilization of Shoulder Region Joints Provide Additional Benefit Over Advice and Exercise Alone for People Who Have Shoulder Pain and Minimal Movement Restriction? A Randomized Controlled Trial. Physical Therapy, 91(2), 178-189. [More Information]
  • Ginn, K., Halaki, M., Cathers, I. (2011). Revision of the Shoulder Normalization Tests Is Required to Include Rhomboid Major and Teres major. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 29(12), 1846-1849. [More Information]
  • Wattanaprakornkul, D., Cathers, I., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2011). The rotator cuff muscles have a direction specific recruitment pattern during shoulder flexion and extension exercises. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14(5), 376-382. [More Information]
  • Johnson, V., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2011). The use of surface electrodes to record infraspinatus activity is not valid at low infraspinatus activation levels. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 21(1), 112-118. [More Information]
  • Whiteley, R., Adams, R., Ginn, K., Nicholson, L. (2010). Playing level achieved, throwing history, and humeral torsion in Masters baseball players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(11), 1223-1232. [More Information]
  • Whiteley, R., Adams, R., Nicholson, L., Ginn, K. (2010). Reduced humeral torsion predicts throwing-related injury in adolescent baseballers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(4), 392-396. [More Information]
  • Boettcher, C., Cathers, I., Ginn, K. (2010). The role of shoulder muscles is task specific. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 651-656. [More Information]
  • Reed, D., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2010). The rotator cuff muscles are activated at low levels during shoulder adduction: an experimental study. Journal of Physiotherapy, 56(4), 259-264. [More Information]
  • Stuelcken, M., Ferdinands, E., Ginn, K., Sinclair, P. (2010). The Shoulder Distraction Force in Cricket Fast Bowling. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 26(3), 373-377. [More Information]
  • Chen, J., Ginn, K., Herbert, R. (2009). Passive mobilisation of shoulder region joints plus advice and exercise does not reduce pain and disability more than advice and exercise alone: a randomised trial. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 55(1), 17-23. [More Information]
  • Whiteley, R., Ginn, K., Nicholson, L., Adams, R. (2009). Sports participation and humeral torsion. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 39(4), 256-263. [More Information]
  • Boettcher, C., Ginn, K., Cathers, I. (2009). The 'empty can' and 'full can' tests do not selectively activate supraspinatus. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(4), 435-439. [More Information]
  • Boettcher, C., Ginn, K., Cathers, I. (2009). Which is the Optimal Exercise to Strengthen Supraspinatus? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41(11), 1979-1983. [More Information]
  • Stuelcken, M., Ginn, K., Sinclair, P. (2008). Musculoskeletal profile of the lumbar spine and hip regions in cricket fast bowlers. Physical Therapy in Sport, 9(2), 82-88. [More Information]
  • Whiteley, R., Adams, R., Nicholson, L., Ginn, K. (2008). Shoulder proprioception is associated with humeral torsion in adolescent baseball players. Physical Therapy in Sport, 9(4), 177-184. [More Information]
  • Stuelcken, M., Ginn, K., Sinclair, P. (2008). Shoulder strength and range of motion in elite female cricket fast bowlers with and without a history of shoulder pain. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 11(6), 575-580. [More Information]
  • Boettcher, C., Ginn, K., Cathers, I. (2008). Standard maximum isometric voluntary contraction tests for normalizing shoulder muscle EMG. Journal of Orthopaedic Research: a journal for musculoskeletal investigation, 26(12), 1591-1597. [More Information]
  • Trevithick, B., Ginn, K., Halaki, M., Balnave, R. (2007). Shoulder muscle recruitment patterns during a kayak stroke performed on a paddling ergometer. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 17(1), 74-79. [More Information]
  • Dark, A., Ginn, K., Halaki, M. (2007). Shoulder Muscle Recruitment Patterns During Commonly Used Rotator Cuff Exercises: An Electromyographic Study. Physical Therapy, 87(8), 1039-1046. [More Information]
  • Ginn, K., Cohen, M., Herbert, R. (2006). Does hand-behind-back range of motion accurately reflect shoulder internal rotation? Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 15(3), 311-314. [More Information]
  • Whiteley, R., Ginn, K., Nicholson, L., Adams, R. (2006). Indirect ultrasound measurement of humeral torsion in adolescent baseball players and non-athletic adults: Reliability and significance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9(4), 310-318. [More Information]
  • Ginn, K., Cohen, M. (2005). Exercise therapy for shoulder pain aimed at restoring neuromuscular control: A randomized comparative clinical trial. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 37(2), 115-122. [More Information]
  • Hayes, K., Ginn, K., Walton, J., Szomor, Z., Murrell, G. (2004). A Randomised Clinical Trial Evaluating The Efficacy Of Physiotherapy After Rotator Cuff Repair. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 50(2), 77-83. [More Information]
  • Ginn, K., Cohen, M. (2004). Conservative Treatment For Shoulder Pain: Prognostic Indicators Of Outcome. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(8), 1231-1235. [More Information]
  • Ginn, K., Henley, E., Clements,, A. (2001). Comparison of upper limb musculoskeletal function and throwing performance in adolescent baseball players and matched controls. Physical Therapy in Sport, 2, 4-14. [More Information]
  • Ginn, K., Henley, E., Clements,, A. (2001). Correlation between muscle strength and throwing speed in adolescent baseball players. Physical Therapy in Sport, 2, 123-131. [More Information]

2018

  • Hollmann, L., Halaki, M., Kamper, S., Haber, M., Ginn, K. (2018). Does muscle guarding play a role in range of motion loss in patients with frozen shoulder? Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, 37, 64-68. [More Information]
  • McLaine, S., Ginn, K., Fell, J., Bird, M. (2018). Isometric shoulder strength in young swimmers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21(1), 35-39. [More Information]
  • McLaine, S., Ginn, K., Fell, J., Bird, M. (2018). Scapular upward rotation position is symmetrical in swimmers without current shoulder pain. Physical Therapy in Sport, 29, 9-13. [More Information]
  • Reed, D., Cathers, I., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2018). Shoulder muscle activation patterns and levels differ between open and closed-chain abduction. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21(5), 462-466. [More Information]
  • Bates, A., Furber, S., Tiedemann, A., Ginn, K., van den Dolder, P., Howard, K., Bauman, A., Chittenden, C., Franco, L., Kershaw, M., Sherrington, C. (2018). Trial Protocol: Home-based exercise programs to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling older people: study protocol for the BEST (Balance Exercise Strength Training) at Home randomised, controlled trial. Journal of Physiotherapy, 64(2), 121. [More Information]

2017

  • Holt, K., Boettcher, C., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2017). Humeral torsion and shoulder rotation range of motion parameters in elite swimmers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(5), 469-474. [More Information]
  • Ginn, K., Reed, D., Jones, C., Downes, A., Cathers, I., Halaki, M. (2017). Is subscapularis recruited in a similar manner during shoulder internal rotation exercises and belly press and lift off tests? Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(6), 566-571. [More Information]
  • Breckenridge, J., McAuley, J., Butler, D., Stewart, H., Moseley, G., Ginn, K. (2017). Reply to the letter to the Editor �Re: The development of a shoulder specific left/right judgement task: Validity & reliability�. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, 30, e88-e89. [More Information]
  • Breckenridge, J., McAuley, J., Butler, D., Stewart, H., Moseley, G., Ginn, K. (2017). The development of a shoulder specific left/right judgement task: Validity & reliability. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, 28, 39-45. [More Information]

2016

  • Reed, D., Cathers, I., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2016). Does changing the plane of abduction influence shoulder muscle recruitment patterns in healthy individuals? Manual Therapy, 21, 63-68. [More Information]
  • Reed, D., Cathers, I., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2016). Does load influence shoulder muscle recruitment patterns during scapular plane abduction? Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(9), 755-760. [More Information]
  • McLaine, S., Ginn, K., Kitic, C., Fell, J., Bird, M. (2016). The Reliability of Strength Tests Performed In Elevated Shoulder Positions Using a Hand-Held Dynamometer. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 2016 (TECHNICAL REPORT 20), 1-4. [More Information]

2015

  • Klintberg, I., Cools, A., Holmgren, T., Holzhausen, A., Johansson, K., Maenhout, A., Moser, J., Spunton, V., Ginn, K. (2015). Consensus for physiotherapy for shoulder pain. International Orthopaedics, 39(4), 715-720. [More Information]
  • Ginn, K., Halaki, M. (2015). Do surface electrode recordings validly represent latissimus dorsi activation patterns during shoulder tasks? Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 25(1), 8-13. [More Information]
  • Lewis, J., Ginn, K. (2015). Rotator Cuff tendinopathy and subacromial pain syndrome. In G Jull, A Moore, D Falla, J Lewis, C McCarthy, M Sterling (Eds.), Grieve's Modern Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy, (pp. 563-567). Edinburgh: Elsevier.
  • Lewis, J., McCreesh, K., Roy, J., Ginn, K. (2015). Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy: Navigating the Diagnosis-Management Conundrum. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 45(11), 923-937. [More Information]

2014

  • Hackett, L., Reed, D., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2014). Assessing the validity of surface electromyography for recording muscle activation patterns from serratus anterior. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 24(2), 221-227. [More Information]
  • Jaggi, A., Alexander, S., Herbert, R., Funk, L., Ginn, K. (2014). Does surgery followed by physiotherapy improve short and long term outcome for patients with atraumatic shoulder instability compared with physiotherapy alone? - protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 15, 1-6. [More Information]

2013

  • Reed, D., Cathers, I., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2013). Does supraspinatus initiate shoulder abduction? Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 23(2), 425-429. [More Information]
  • Tardo, D., Halaki, M., Cathers, I., Ginn, K. (2013). Rotator Cuff Muscles Perform Different Functional Roles During Shoulder External Rotation Exercises. Clinical Anatomy, 26(2), 236-243. [More Information]
  • Rickert, D., Halaki, M., Ginn, K., Barrett, M., Ackermann, B. (2013). The use of fine-wire EMG to investigate shoulder muscle recruitment patterns during cello bowing: The results of a pilot study. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 23(6), 1261-1268. [More Information]

2012

  • Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2012). Normalization of EMG Signals: To Normalize or Not to Normalize and What to Normalize to? In Garnesh R. Naik (Eds.), Computational Intelligence in Electromyography Analysis - A Perspective on Current Applications and Future Challenges, (pp. 175-194). Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia: InTech Open Access Publishers (peer reviewed). [More Information]

2011

  • Wattanaprakornkul, D., Halaki, M., Boettcher, C., Cathers, I., Ginn, K. (2011). A Comprehensive Analysis of Muscle Recruitment Patterns During Shoulder Flexion: An Electromyographic Study. Clinical Anatomy, 24(5), 619-626. [More Information]
  • Wattanaprakornkul, D., Halaki, M., Cathers, I., Ginn, K. (2011). Direction-specific recruitment of rotator cuff muscles during bench press and row. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 21(6), 1041-1049. [More Information]
  • Yiasemides, R., Halaki, M., Cathers, I., Ginn, K. (2011). Does Passive Mobilization of Shoulder Region Joints Provide Additional Benefit Over Advice and Exercise Alone for People Who Have Shoulder Pain and Minimal Movement Restriction? A Randomized Controlled Trial. Physical Therapy, 91(2), 178-189. [More Information]
  • Ginn, K., Halaki, M., Cathers, I. (2011). Revision of the Shoulder Normalization Tests Is Required to Include Rhomboid Major and Teres major. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 29(12), 1846-1849. [More Information]
  • Wattanaprakornkul, D., Cathers, I., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2011). The rotator cuff muscles have a direction specific recruitment pattern during shoulder flexion and extension exercises. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14(5), 376-382. [More Information]
  • Johnson, V., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2011). The use of surface electrodes to record infraspinatus activity is not valid at low infraspinatus activation levels. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 21(1), 112-118. [More Information]

2010

  • Whiteley, R., Adams, R., Ginn, K., Nicholson, L. (2010). Playing level achieved, throwing history, and humeral torsion in Masters baseball players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(11), 1223-1232. [More Information]
  • Whiteley, R., Adams, R., Nicholson, L., Ginn, K. (2010). Reduced humeral torsion predicts throwing-related injury in adolescent baseballers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(4), 392-396. [More Information]
  • Boettcher, C., Cathers, I., Ginn, K. (2010). The role of shoulder muscles is task specific. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 651-656. [More Information]
  • Reed, D., Halaki, M., Ginn, K. (2010). The rotator cuff muscles are activated at low levels during shoulder adduction: an experimental study. Journal of Physiotherapy, 56(4), 259-264. [More Information]
  • Stuelcken, M., Ferdinands, E., Ginn, K., Sinclair, P. (2010). The Shoulder Distraction Force in Cricket Fast Bowling. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 26(3), 373-377. [More Information]

2009

  • Chen, J., Ginn, K., Herbert, R. (2009). Passive mobilisation of shoulder region joints plus advice and exercise does not reduce pain and disability more than advice and exercise alone: a randomised trial. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 55(1), 17-23. [More Information]
  • Whiteley, R., Ginn, K., Nicholson, L., Adams, R. (2009). Sports participation and humeral torsion. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 39(4), 256-263. [More Information]
  • Boettcher, C., Ginn, K., Cathers, I. (2009). The 'empty can' and 'full can' tests do not selectively activate supraspinatus. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(4), 435-439. [More Information]
  • Boettcher, C., Ginn, K., Cathers, I. (2009). Which is the Optimal Exercise to Strengthen Supraspinatus? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41(11), 1979-1983. [More Information]

2008

  • Stuelcken, M., Ginn, K., Sinclair, P. (2008). Musculoskeletal profile of the lumbar spine and hip regions in cricket fast bowlers. Physical Therapy in Sport, 9(2), 82-88. [More Information]
  • Whiteley, R., Adams, R., Nicholson, L., Ginn, K. (2008). Shoulder proprioception is associated with humeral torsion in adolescent baseball players. Physical Therapy in Sport, 9(4), 177-184. [More Information]
  • Stuelcken, M., Ginn, K., Sinclair, P. (2008). Shoulder strength and range of motion in elite female cricket fast bowlers with and without a history of shoulder pain. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 11(6), 575-580. [More Information]
  • Boettcher, C., Ginn, K., Cathers, I. (2008). Standard maximum isometric voluntary contraction tests for normalizing shoulder muscle EMG. Journal of Orthopaedic Research: a journal for musculoskeletal investigation, 26(12), 1591-1597. [More Information]

2007

  • Trevithick, B., Ginn, K., Halaki, M., Balnave, R. (2007). Shoulder muscle recruitment patterns during a kayak stroke performed on a paddling ergometer. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 17(1), 74-79. [More Information]
  • Dark, A., Ginn, K., Halaki, M. (2007). Shoulder Muscle Recruitment Patterns During Commonly Used Rotator Cuff Exercises: An Electromyographic Study. Physical Therapy, 87(8), 1039-1046. [More Information]

2006

  • Ginn, K., Cohen, M., Herbert, R. (2006). Does hand-behind-back range of motion accurately reflect shoulder internal rotation? Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 15(3), 311-314. [More Information]
  • Whiteley, R., Ginn, K., Nicholson, L., Adams, R. (2006). Indirect ultrasound measurement of humeral torsion in adolescent baseball players and non-athletic adults: Reliability and significance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9(4), 310-318. [More Information]

2005

  • Ginn, K., Cohen, M. (2005). Exercise therapy for shoulder pain aimed at restoring neuromuscular control: A randomized comparative clinical trial. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 37(2), 115-122. [More Information]

2004

  • Hayes, K., Ginn, K., Walton, J., Szomor, Z., Murrell, G. (2004). A Randomised Clinical Trial Evaluating The Efficacy Of Physiotherapy After Rotator Cuff Repair. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 50(2), 77-83. [More Information]
  • Ginn, K., Cohen, M. (2004). Conservative Treatment For Shoulder Pain: Prognostic Indicators Of Outcome. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(8), 1231-1235. [More Information]

2001

  • Ginn, K., Henley, E., Clements,, A. (2001). Comparison of upper limb musculoskeletal function and throwing performance in adolescent baseball players and matched controls. Physical Therapy in Sport, 2, 4-14. [More Information]
  • Ginn, K., Henley, E., Clements,, A. (2001). Correlation between muscle strength and throwing speed in adolescent baseball players. Physical Therapy in Sport, 2, 123-131. [More Information]

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