Dr Cynthia Kroeger

Postdoctoral Research Fellow

D17 - Charles Perkins Centre
The University of Sydney

Telephone +61 2 9114 2199

Website LinkedIn: cynthiamkroeger
Twitter: cynthiamkroeger

Biographical details

Dr Cynthia Kroeger is a postdoctoral fellow and interdisciplinary researcher in the Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Pharmacy, based at the Charles Perkins Centre (CPC). Her expertise includes research integrity and bias, open science, and behavioral interventions for obesity. Her current work examines biases in the evidence base used globally to develop dietary guidelines and the impact of life-time exposure to trauma on the autonomic nervous and metabolic systems, behavior, and obesity. She is a member of the Bias in Research node at the CPC.

Her previous postdoctoral work at Indiana University Bloomington, funded by the NIH National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (F32DK107157), examined biases and common statistical errors in nutrition and obesity research. She received her PhD from the University of Illinois at Chicago in Kinesiology, Nutrition, and Rehabilitation, on the Integrative Pathophysiology: Nutrition and Health Promotion track. For her dissertation, she tested the effects of 12 months of alternate day fasting vs. daily calorie restriction, plus behavioral change education, on weight loss, weight loss maintenance, cardiovascular disease risk, and self-efficacy.

Dr Kroeger is a Catalyst for the Berkley Initiative for Transparency in the Social Sciences (www.bitss.org/catalysts), weekly contributor to the Scientific Rigor & Scholarly Dialogue section of www.obesityandenergetics.org, and a Research Fellow affiliate of the Kinsey Institute (www.kinseyinstitute.org).

Research interests

Drawing on her interdisciplinary background in physiology, psychology, and philosophy, Dr Kroeger is interested in the ways that trust, safety, and transparency impact the scientific process, human relationships, and pathophysiology.

In regard to the scientific process, her work has focused on the ways in which biases decrease the reliability of findings and how increasing transparency through open science might improve the scientific record and the public’s trust in science. She continues to study emerging methods that help decrease error and bias and/or enhance replicability, such as preregistration of statistical analysis plans, automation of research methods via R programming, and open sharing of the data and code used to obtain reported results of scientific studies. Dr Kroeger has helped elucidate common statistical errors and biases in nutrition and obesity scientific literature.

In the context of human relationships and pathophysiology, Dr Kroeger is collaborating internationally with:

  • the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Center and Kinsey Institute to assess in people with obesity the impact of life-time exposure to trauma on autonomic and metabolic dysfunction and response to dietary weight loss treatments that include a support group behavioral change intervention
  • the University of Ottawa to review the effect of women’s empowerment strategies on adolescent girls’ nutritional status in low- and middle-income countries

Results from this work may inform ways to improve the intervention methods designed for these populations. Treatment may be enhanced by targeting the autonomic nervous system via improving safety, trust, and attunement to the self and among interpersonal relationships. Such findings also may have implications for ways to improve the efficiency and reliability of the scientific process, such that increasing safety and trust within the research environment may foster willingness to conduct open work, engage in transparent dialogue, and interdependence.

As part of the Evidence, Policy, and Influence Collaborative of the Charles Perkins Centre NHMRC project grant (APP1139997), Dr Kroeger is assessing whether differences in the quality of methods and evidence used to develop dietary fat intake recommendations in global food based dietary guidelines are related to differences in resulting guideline recommendations.

Associations

Kinsey Institute (Research Fellow, 2018 – Present)

Cochrane Nutrition (Member, 2017 – Present)

Berkeley Initiative for Transparency in the Social Sciences (Catalyst, 2015 – Present)

American Statistical Association (Member, 2014 – Present)

The Obesity Society (Member, 2012 – Present)

American Society for Nutrition (Member, 2012 – Present)

Awards and honours

2017 Annual Meeting Travel Stipend, Berkeley Initiative for Transparency in the Social Sciences

2016 Career Enhancement Award, University of Alabama at Birmingham

2015 George A. Bray Doctoral Dissertation Award, The Obesity Society

2015 Postdoctoral Scholars Grant Incentive Award, University of Alabama at Birmingham

2015 Young Investigator Travel Award, University of Alabama at Birmingham

2015 Summer Workshop Travel Stipend, Berkeley Initiative for Transparency in the Social Sciences

2015 Graduate College Travel Award, University of Illinois at Chicago

2014 Young Investigator Travel Award, University of Alabama at Birmingham

2014 Kris and Savitri K Kamath Scholarship, University of Illinois at Chicago

2014 Graduate College Travel Award, University of Illinois at Chicago

2013 Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition Travel Award, University of Illinois at Chicago

2013 Poster Award, American Society for Nutrition

2006 – 2008 Dean’s Merit Scholarship, Loyola University Chicago

In the media

NPR (May 1, 2017). Fasting studies clash with our desire to eat what we want, when we want it. https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/05/01/526069419/fasting-studies-clash-with-our-desire-to-eat-what-we-want-when-we-want-it

TIME Magazine (May 1, 2017). Fasting isn’t better for you than regular dieting. http://www.time.com/4761220/fasting-diet-weight-loss/

US News & World Report (May 1, 2017). Fasting diet just as effective as restricted caloric diet, study says. https://health.usnews.com/wellness/health-buzz/articles/2017-05-01/fasting-diet-just-as-effective-as-restricted-calorie-diet-study-says

Highya (February 3, 2017). Fake science & health news: The harm it causes and how you can protect yourself. https://www.highya.com/articles-guides/fake-science-and-health-news-the-harm-it-causes-and-how-you-can-protect-yourself

Psychology Today (April 19, 2017). Of March and myth: The politicizing of science. Scientific integrity, self-correction, and the public. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-gravity-weight/201704/march-and-myth-the-politicizing-science

BITSS (April 3, 2017). Reproducibility of research: Issues and proposed remedies – A Sackler Colloquium Reflection. https://www.bitss.org/2017/04/03/reproducibility-of-research-issues-and-proposed-remedies-a-sackler-colloquium-reflection/

New York Times (March 7, 2016). Fasting diets are gaining acceptance. https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/03/07/intermittent-fasting-diets-are-gaining-acceptance/

Huffington Post (December 3, 2014). Intermittent fasting: Who’s it for? https://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-berardi-phd/intermittent-fasting-whos_b_6236712.html

Keywords

Bias; Autonomic nervous system; Transparency; Interdependence; Obesity & overweight

Selected publications

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Journals

  • Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Klempel, M., Barnosky, A., Bhutani, S., Gabel, K., Varady, K. (2018). Eating behavior traits of successful weight losers during 12 months of alternate-day fasting: An exploratory analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition and Health, 24(1), 5-10. [More Information]
  • Gabel, K., Hoddy, K., Haggerty, N., Song, J., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Panda, S., Varady, K. (2018). Effects of 8-hour time restricted feeding on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults: A pilot study. Nutrition and Healthy Aging, 4(4), 345-353. [More Information]
  • Kroeger, C., Garza, C., Lynch, C., Myers, E., Rowe, S., Schneeman, B., Sharma, A., Allison, D. (2018). Scientific rigor and credibility in the nutrition research landscape. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 107(3), 484-494. [More Information]
  • Barnosky, A., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Klempel, M., Bhutani, S., Hoddy, K., Gabel, K., Shapses, S., Varady, K. (2017). Effect of alternate day fasting on markers of bone metabolism: An exploratory analysis of a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrition and Healthy Aging, 4(3), 255-263. [More Information]
  • Trepanowski, J., Kroeger, C., Barnosky, A., Klempel, M., Bhutani, S., Hoddy, K., Gabel, K., Freels, S., Rigdon, J., Rood, J., et al (2017). Effect of alternate-day fasting on weight loss, weight maintenance, and cardioprotection among metabolically healthy obese adults: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, 177(7), 930-938. [More Information]
  • Hoddy, K., Gibbons, C., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Barnosky, A., Bhutani, S., Gabel, K., Finlayson, G., Varady, K. (2016). Changes in hunger and fullness in relation to gut peptides before and after 8 weeks of alternate day fasting. Clinical Nutrition, 35(6), 1380-1385. [More Information]
  • Varady, K., Hoddy, K., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Klempel, M., Barnosky, A., Bhutani, S. (2016). Determinants of weight loss success with alternate day fasting. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, 10(4), 476-480. [More Information]
  • Varady, K., Dam, V., Klempel, M., Horne, M., Cruz, R., Kroeger, C., Santosa, S. (2015). Effects of weight loss via high fat vs. low fat alternate day fasting diets on free fatty acid profiles. Scientific Reports, 5, 1-6. [More Information]
  • Hoddy, K., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Barnosky, A., Bhutani, S., Varady, K. (2015). Safety of alternate day fasting and effect on disordered eating behaviors. Nutrition Journal, 14(1). [More Information]
  • Kroeger, C., Hoddy, K., Varady, K. (2014). Impact of weight regain on metabolic disease risk: A review of human trials. Journal of Obesity, 2014, 1-8. [More Information]
  • Hoddy, K., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Barnosky, A., Bhutani, S., Varady, K. (2014). Meal timing during alternate day fasting: Impact on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk in obese adults. Obesity, 22(12), 2524-2531. [More Information]
  • Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Varady, K. (2013). Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a high-fat diet produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as ADF with a low-fat diet. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 62(1), 137-143. [More Information]
  • Bhutani, S., Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Varady, K. (2013). Alternate day fasting and endurance exercise combine to reduce body weight and favorably alter plasma lipids in obese humans. Obesity, 21(7), 1370-1379. [More Information]
  • Varady, K., Bhutani, S., Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Haus, J., Hoddy, K., Calvo, Y. (2013). Alternate day fasting for weight loss in normal weight and overweight subjects: A randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 12(1), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Varady, K. (2013). Alternate day fasting increases LDL particle size independently of dietary fat content in obese humans. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(7), 783-785. [More Information]
  • Bhutani, S., Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Phillips, S., Norkeviciute, E., Varady, K. (2013). Alternate day fasting with or without exercise: Effects on endothelial function and adipokines in obese humans. e - SPEN Journal: the European e-journal of clinical nutrition and metabolism, 8(5), e205-e209. [More Information]
  • Bhutani, S., Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Aggour, E., Calvo, Y., Trepanowski, J., Hoddy, K., Varady, K. (2013). Effect of exercising while fasting on eating behaviors and food intake. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10, 1-8. [More Information]
  • Kroeger, C., Klempel, M., Bhutani, S., Trepanowski, J., Tangney, C., Varady, K. (2012). Improvement in coronary heart disease risk factors during an intermittent fasting/calorie restriction regimen: Relationship to adipokine modulations. Nutrition and Metabolism, 9, 1-8. [More Information]
  • Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Bhutani, S., Trepanowski, J., Varady, K. (2012). Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women. Nutrition Journal, 11(1), 1-9. [More Information]
  • Varady, K., Bhutani, S., Klempel, M., Kroeger, C. (2011). Comparison of effects of diet versus exercise weight loss regimens on LDL and HDL particle size in obese adults. Lipids in Health and Disease, 10, 1-5. [More Information]

2018

  • Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Klempel, M., Barnosky, A., Bhutani, S., Gabel, K., Varady, K. (2018). Eating behavior traits of successful weight losers during 12 months of alternate-day fasting: An exploratory analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition and Health, 24(1), 5-10. [More Information]
  • Gabel, K., Hoddy, K., Haggerty, N., Song, J., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Panda, S., Varady, K. (2018). Effects of 8-hour time restricted feeding on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults: A pilot study. Nutrition and Healthy Aging, 4(4), 345-353. [More Information]
  • Kroeger, C., Garza, C., Lynch, C., Myers, E., Rowe, S., Schneeman, B., Sharma, A., Allison, D. (2018). Scientific rigor and credibility in the nutrition research landscape. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 107(3), 484-494. [More Information]

2017

  • Barnosky, A., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Klempel, M., Bhutani, S., Hoddy, K., Gabel, K., Shapses, S., Varady, K. (2017). Effect of alternate day fasting on markers of bone metabolism: An exploratory analysis of a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrition and Healthy Aging, 4(3), 255-263. [More Information]
  • Trepanowski, J., Kroeger, C., Barnosky, A., Klempel, M., Bhutani, S., Hoddy, K., Gabel, K., Freels, S., Rigdon, J., Rood, J., et al (2017). Effect of alternate-day fasting on weight loss, weight maintenance, and cardioprotection among metabolically healthy obese adults: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, 177(7), 930-938. [More Information]

2016

  • Hoddy, K., Gibbons, C., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Barnosky, A., Bhutani, S., Gabel, K., Finlayson, G., Varady, K. (2016). Changes in hunger and fullness in relation to gut peptides before and after 8 weeks of alternate day fasting. Clinical Nutrition, 35(6), 1380-1385. [More Information]
  • Varady, K., Hoddy, K., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Klempel, M., Barnosky, A., Bhutani, S. (2016). Determinants of weight loss success with alternate day fasting. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, 10(4), 476-480. [More Information]

2015

  • Varady, K., Dam, V., Klempel, M., Horne, M., Cruz, R., Kroeger, C., Santosa, S. (2015). Effects of weight loss via high fat vs. low fat alternate day fasting diets on free fatty acid profiles. Scientific Reports, 5, 1-6. [More Information]
  • Hoddy, K., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Barnosky, A., Bhutani, S., Varady, K. (2015). Safety of alternate day fasting and effect on disordered eating behaviors. Nutrition Journal, 14(1). [More Information]

2014

  • Kroeger, C., Hoddy, K., Varady, K. (2014). Impact of weight regain on metabolic disease risk: A review of human trials. Journal of Obesity, 2014, 1-8. [More Information]
  • Hoddy, K., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Barnosky, A., Bhutani, S., Varady, K. (2014). Meal timing during alternate day fasting: Impact on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk in obese adults. Obesity, 22(12), 2524-2531. [More Information]

2013

  • Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Varady, K. (2013). Alternate day fasting (ADF) with a high-fat diet produces similar weight loss and cardio-protection as ADF with a low-fat diet. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 62(1), 137-143. [More Information]
  • Bhutani, S., Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Varady, K. (2013). Alternate day fasting and endurance exercise combine to reduce body weight and favorably alter plasma lipids in obese humans. Obesity, 21(7), 1370-1379. [More Information]
  • Varady, K., Bhutani, S., Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Haus, J., Hoddy, K., Calvo, Y. (2013). Alternate day fasting for weight loss in normal weight and overweight subjects: A randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 12(1), 1-8. [More Information]
  • Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Varady, K. (2013). Alternate day fasting increases LDL particle size independently of dietary fat content in obese humans. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(7), 783-785. [More Information]
  • Bhutani, S., Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Trepanowski, J., Phillips, S., Norkeviciute, E., Varady, K. (2013). Alternate day fasting with or without exercise: Effects on endothelial function and adipokines in obese humans. e - SPEN Journal: the European e-journal of clinical nutrition and metabolism, 8(5), e205-e209. [More Information]
  • Bhutani, S., Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Aggour, E., Calvo, Y., Trepanowski, J., Hoddy, K., Varady, K. (2013). Effect of exercising while fasting on eating behaviors and food intake. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10, 1-8. [More Information]

2012

  • Kroeger, C., Klempel, M., Bhutani, S., Trepanowski, J., Tangney, C., Varady, K. (2012). Improvement in coronary heart disease risk factors during an intermittent fasting/calorie restriction regimen: Relationship to adipokine modulations. Nutrition and Metabolism, 9, 1-8. [More Information]
  • Klempel, M., Kroeger, C., Bhutani, S., Trepanowski, J., Varady, K. (2012). Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women. Nutrition Journal, 11(1), 1-9. [More Information]

2011

  • Varady, K., Bhutani, S., Klempel, M., Kroeger, C. (2011). Comparison of effects of diet versus exercise weight loss regimens on LDL and HDL particle size in obese adults. Lipids in Health and Disease, 10, 1-5. [More Information]

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