Dr Ann Burgess

A16 - Badham Building
The University of Sydney


Website Vestibular Research Laboratory
Contact Details

Research interests

The vestibular system; responses of the otoliths to bone-conducted vibration; Listing's plane; optokinetic torsion; applying the mathematics of 3d rotations to the vestibular system and to eye rotations.

Selected grants

2013

  • Comprehensive clinical tests of vestibular function to track vestibular compensation and Meniere's Disease; Curthoys I, Halmagyi M, MacDougall H, Burgess A, McGarvie L; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

2010

  • Vestibulo-ocular responses to bone conducted vibration; Curthoys I, Halmagyi G, Burgess A, McGarvie L; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)/Project Grants.

Selected publications

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Book Chapters

  • Curthoys, I., MacDougall, H., Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Bradshaw, A., McGarvie, L., Halmagyi, M. (2011). Klinische Anwendung eines obiektiven Tests zur PrUfung der dynamischen Bogengangsfunktion - der Video Kopfimpuls-Test (vHIT). In Iro H, Waldfahrer F ( (Eds.), Vertigo - Kontroverses und Bewährtes. 8, Hennig-Symposium, (pp. 53-62). Germany: Springer.

Journals

  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., McGarvie, L., Curthoys, I. (2013). An Indicator of Probable Semicircular Canal Dehiscence: Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials to High Frequencies. Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, 149(1), 142-145. [More Information]
  • Burgess, A., Mezey, L., Manzari, L., MacDougall, H., McGarvie, L., Curthoys, I. (2013). Effect of Stimulus Rise-Time on the Ocular Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potential to Bone-Conducted Vibration. Ear And Hearing, 34(6), 799-805. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., MacDougall, H., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2013). New, Fast, Clinical Vestibular Tests Identify Whether a Vertigo Attack is Due to Early Meniere's Disease or Vestibular Neuritis. The Laryngoscope, 123, 507-511. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., Curthoys, I. (2013). Vestibular function after vestibular neuritis. International Journal of Audiology, 52(10), 713-718. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2012). Does unilateral utricular dysfunction cause horizontal spontaneous nystagmus? European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 269(11), 2441-2445. [More Information]
  • Curthoys, I., Vulovic, V., Ferguson (Sokolic), L., Pogson, J., Burgess, A. (2012). Irregular primary otolith afferents from the guinea pig utricular and saccular maculae respond to both bone conducted vibration and to air conducted sound. Brain Research Bulletin, 89(1-2), 16-21. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2012). Is it possible to measure peripheral vestibular function in a patient with congenital nystagmus? European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 269(1), 349-352. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., Curthoys, I. (2012). Objective measures of vestibular function during an acute vertigo attack in a very young child. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 269(12), 2589-2592. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2012). Ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to bone-conducted vibration in patients with probable inferior vestibular neuritis. Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 126(7), 683-691. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., McGarvie, L., Curthoys, I. (2012). Ocular and Cervical Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials to 500 Hz Fz Bone-Conducted Vibration in Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence. Ear And Hearing, 33(4), 508-520. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2012). Vestibular function in Lermoyez syndrome at attack. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 269(2), 685-691. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., Curthoys, I. (2011). Enhanced otolithic function in semicircular canal dehiscence. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 131(1), 107-112. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., Curthoys, I. (2011). Objective Verification of Full Recovery of Dynamic Vestibular Function After Superior Vestibular Neuritis. The Laryngoscope, 121(11), 2496-2500.
  • Curthoys, I., Burgess, A., Iwasaki, S., Chihara, Y., Ushio, M., McGarvie, L. (2011). Probability and the weight of evidence. Reply to Xie: "Comment on the ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential to air-conducted sound; probable superior vestibular nerve origin". Clinical Neurophysiology, 122, 1269-1270.
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., Bradshaw, A., Curthoys, I. (2011). Rapid fluctuations in dynamic semicircular canal function in early Meniere's disease (letter to the editor). European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 268, 637-639.
  • Curthoys, I., Vulovic, V., Burgess, A., Cornell, E., Mezey, L., MacDougall, H., Manzari, L., McGarvie, L. (2011). The basis for using bone-conducted vibration or air-conducted sound to test otolithic function. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1233 (1), 231-241. [More Information]
  • Curthoys, I., Iwasaki, S., Chihara, Y., Ushio, M., McGarvie, L., Burgess, A. (2011). The ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential to air-conducted sound; probable superior vestibular nerve origin. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122(3), 611-616. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2010). Dissociation between cVEMP and oVEMP responses: different vestibular origins of each VEMP? European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 267(9), 1487-1489. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2010). Effect of bone-conducted vibration of the midline forehead (Fz) in unilateral vestibular loss (uVL). Evidence for a new indicator of unilateral otolithic function. Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica, 30(4), 175-181.
  • Manzari, L., Tedesco, A., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2010). Ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration in Meniere's disease during quiescence vs during acute attacks. Clinical Neurophysiology, 121(7), 1092-1101. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Tedesco, A., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2010). Ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone-conducted vibration in superior vestibular neuritis show utricular function. Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, 143(2), 274-280. [More Information]
  • Curthoys, I., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., McGarvie, L., Halmagyi, G., Smulders, Y., Iwasaki, S. (2009). Testing human otolith function using bone-conducted vibration. New York Academy of Sciences. Annals, 1164 (-), 344-346. [More Information]
  • Smulders, Y., Welgampola, M., Burgess, A., McGarvie, L., Halmagyi, G., Curthoys, I. (2009). The n10 component of the ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) is distinct from the R1 component of the blink reflex. Clinical Neurophysiology, 120(8), 1567-1576. [More Information]
  • Iwasaki, S., Chihara, Y., Smulders, Y., Burgess, A., Halmagyi, G., Curthoys, I., Murofushi, T. (2009). The role of the superior vestibular nerve in generating ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration at Fz. Clinical Neurophysiology, 120(3), 588-593. [More Information]
  • Cornell, E., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., Curthoys, I. (2009). Vertical and horizontal eye movement responses to unilateral and bilateral bone conducted vibration to the mastoid. Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium and Orientation, 19(1-2), 41-47.
  • Iwasaki, S., Smulders, Y., Burgess, A., McGarvie, L., MacDougall, H., Halmagyi, G., Curthoys, I. (2008). Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to bone-conducted vibration of the midline forehead at Fz: a new indicator of unilateral otolithic loss. Audiology and Neurotology (Previously: Audiology and Neuro-Otology until 2004), 13(6), 396-404. [More Information]
  • Iwasaki, S., Smulders, Y., Burgess, A., McGarvie, L., MacDougall, H., Halmagyi, G., Curthoys, I. (2008). Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration of the midline forehead at Fz in healthy subjects. Clinical Neurophysiology, 119(9), 2135-2147. [More Information]
  • Goonetilleke, S., Mezey, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2008). On the relation between ocular torsion and visual perception of line orientation. Vision Research, 48(13), 1488-1496.
  • Iwasaki, S., McGarvie, L., Halmagyi, M., Burgess, A., Kim, J., Colebatch, J., Curthoys, I. (2007). Head taps evoke a crossed vestibulo-ocular reflex. Neurology, 68(15), 1227-1229. [More Information]
  • Vibert, N., Hoang, T., Gilchrist, D., MacDougall, H., Burgess, A., Roberts, R., Vidal, P., Curthoys, I. (2006). Psychophysiological correlates of the inter-individual variability of head movement control in seated humans. Gait and Posture, 23(3), 355-363. [More Information]
  • Burgess, A., Hunstead, R. (2006). The Molonglo Southern 4 Jy sample (MS4). I. Definition. The Astronomical Journal, 131(1), 100-113.
  • Burgess, A., Hunstead, R. (2006). The Molonglo Southern 4 Jy sample (MS4). II. ATCA imaging and optical identification. The Astronomical Journal, 131(1), 114-132.
  • MacDougall, H., Brizuela, A., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I., Halmagyi, G. (2005). Patient and Normal Three-dimensional Eye-Movement Responses to Maintained (DC) Surface Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation. Otology & Neurotology, 26(3), 500-511. [More Information]
  • Mezey, L., Curthoys, I., Burgess, A., Goonetilleke, S., MacDougall, H. (2004). Changes In Ocular Torsion Position Produced By A Single Visual Line Rotating Around The Line Of Sight - Visual 'Entrainment' Of Ocular Torsion. Vision Research, 44(4), 397-406.
  • Goonetilleke, S., Curthoys, I., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H. (2004). Cognitive Demand Affects The Gain Of The Torsional Optokinetic Response. Experimental Brain Research, 158(1), 125-128. [More Information]
  • Ooi, D., Cornell, E., Curthoys, I., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H. (2004). Convergence Reduces Ocular Counterroll (OCR) During Static Roll-Tilt. Vision Research, 44(24), 2825-2833.
  • Cartwright, A., Gilchrist, D., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2003). A realistic neural-network simuation of both slow and quick phase components of the guinea pig VOR. Experimental Brain Research, 149(3), 299-311.
  • Gilchrist, D., Cartwright, A., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2003). Behavioural characteristics of the quick phase of vestibular nystagmus before and after unilateral labyrinthectomy in guinea pig. Experimental Brain Research, 149(3), 289-298.
  • MacDougall, H., Brizuela, A., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2002). Between-subject variability and within-subject reliability of the human eye-movement response to bilateral galvanic (DC) vestibular stimulation. Experimental Brain Research, , 69-78. [More Information]
  • MacDougall, H., Gilchrist, D., Burgess, A., Sidis, A., Curthoys, I., Vibert, N., de, W., Migliaccio, A., Vidal, P. (2001). Variability in the control of head movements in seated humans: a link with whiplash injuries? The Journal of Physiology, 532, 851-868.
  • Gilchrist, D., Curthoys, I., Burgess, A., Cartwright, A., Jinnouchi, K., MacDougall, H., Halmagyi, G. (2000). Semicircular canal occlusion causes permanent VOR changes. NeuroReport, 11, 2527-2531.

Conferences

  • Curthoys, I., Vulovic, V., Burgess, A., Manzari, L., Ferguson (Sokolic), L., Pogson, J., Robins, M., Mezey, L., Goonetilleke, S., Cornell, E., MacDougall, H. (2014). The neural basis of new clinical vestibular tests: otolithic neural responses to sound and vibration. Sydney 2012 Joint AuPS/PSNZ/ASB Meeting, Sydney: Online.

2014

  • Curthoys, I., Vulovic, V., Burgess, A., Manzari, L., Ferguson (Sokolic), L., Pogson, J., Robins, M., Mezey, L., Goonetilleke, S., Cornell, E., MacDougall, H. (2014). The neural basis of new clinical vestibular tests: otolithic neural responses to sound and vibration. Sydney 2012 Joint AuPS/PSNZ/ASB Meeting, Sydney: Online.

2013

  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., McGarvie, L., Curthoys, I. (2013). An Indicator of Probable Semicircular Canal Dehiscence: Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials to High Frequencies. Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, 149(1), 142-145. [More Information]
  • Burgess, A., Mezey, L., Manzari, L., MacDougall, H., McGarvie, L., Curthoys, I. (2013). Effect of Stimulus Rise-Time on the Ocular Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potential to Bone-Conducted Vibration. Ear And Hearing, 34(6), 799-805. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., MacDougall, H., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2013). New, Fast, Clinical Vestibular Tests Identify Whether a Vertigo Attack is Due to Early Meniere's Disease or Vestibular Neuritis. The Laryngoscope, 123, 507-511. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., Curthoys, I. (2013). Vestibular function after vestibular neuritis. International Journal of Audiology, 52(10), 713-718. [More Information]

2012

  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2012). Does unilateral utricular dysfunction cause horizontal spontaneous nystagmus? European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 269(11), 2441-2445. [More Information]
  • Curthoys, I., Vulovic, V., Ferguson (Sokolic), L., Pogson, J., Burgess, A. (2012). Irregular primary otolith afferents from the guinea pig utricular and saccular maculae respond to both bone conducted vibration and to air conducted sound. Brain Research Bulletin, 89(1-2), 16-21. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2012). Is it possible to measure peripheral vestibular function in a patient with congenital nystagmus? European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 269(1), 349-352. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., Curthoys, I. (2012). Objective measures of vestibular function during an acute vertigo attack in a very young child. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 269(12), 2589-2592. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2012). Ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to bone-conducted vibration in patients with probable inferior vestibular neuritis. Journal of Laryngology and Otology, 126(7), 683-691. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., McGarvie, L., Curthoys, I. (2012). Ocular and Cervical Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials to 500 Hz Fz Bone-Conducted Vibration in Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence. Ear And Hearing, 33(4), 508-520. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2012). Vestibular function in Lermoyez syndrome at attack. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 269(2), 685-691. [More Information]

2011

  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., Curthoys, I. (2011). Enhanced otolithic function in semicircular canal dehiscence. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 131(1), 107-112. [More Information]
  • Curthoys, I., MacDougall, H., Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Bradshaw, A., McGarvie, L., Halmagyi, M. (2011). Klinische Anwendung eines obiektiven Tests zur PrUfung der dynamischen Bogengangsfunktion - der Video Kopfimpuls-Test (vHIT). In Iro H, Waldfahrer F ( (Eds.), Vertigo - Kontroverses und Bewährtes. 8, Hennig-Symposium, (pp. 53-62). Germany: Springer.
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., Curthoys, I. (2011). Objective Verification of Full Recovery of Dynamic Vestibular Function After Superior Vestibular Neuritis. The Laryngoscope, 121(11), 2496-2500.
  • Curthoys, I., Burgess, A., Iwasaki, S., Chihara, Y., Ushio, M., McGarvie, L. (2011). Probability and the weight of evidence. Reply to Xie: "Comment on the ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential to air-conducted sound; probable superior vestibular nerve origin". Clinical Neurophysiology, 122, 1269-1270.
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., Bradshaw, A., Curthoys, I. (2011). Rapid fluctuations in dynamic semicircular canal function in early Meniere's disease (letter to the editor). European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 268, 637-639.
  • Curthoys, I., Vulovic, V., Burgess, A., Cornell, E., Mezey, L., MacDougall, H., Manzari, L., McGarvie, L. (2011). The basis for using bone-conducted vibration or air-conducted sound to test otolithic function. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1233 (1), 231-241. [More Information]
  • Curthoys, I., Iwasaki, S., Chihara, Y., Ushio, M., McGarvie, L., Burgess, A. (2011). The ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential to air-conducted sound; probable superior vestibular nerve origin. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122(3), 611-616. [More Information]

2010

  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2010). Dissociation between cVEMP and oVEMP responses: different vestibular origins of each VEMP? European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 267(9), 1487-1489. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2010). Effect of bone-conducted vibration of the midline forehead (Fz) in unilateral vestibular loss (uVL). Evidence for a new indicator of unilateral otolithic function. Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica, 30(4), 175-181.
  • Manzari, L., Tedesco, A., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2010). Ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration in Meniere's disease during quiescence vs during acute attacks. Clinical Neurophysiology, 121(7), 1092-1101. [More Information]
  • Manzari, L., Tedesco, A., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2010). Ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone-conducted vibration in superior vestibular neuritis show utricular function. Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, 143(2), 274-280. [More Information]

2009

  • Curthoys, I., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., McGarvie, L., Halmagyi, G., Smulders, Y., Iwasaki, S. (2009). Testing human otolith function using bone-conducted vibration. New York Academy of Sciences. Annals, 1164 (-), 344-346. [More Information]
  • Smulders, Y., Welgampola, M., Burgess, A., McGarvie, L., Halmagyi, G., Curthoys, I. (2009). The n10 component of the ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) is distinct from the R1 component of the blink reflex. Clinical Neurophysiology, 120(8), 1567-1576. [More Information]
  • Iwasaki, S., Chihara, Y., Smulders, Y., Burgess, A., Halmagyi, G., Curthoys, I., Murofushi, T. (2009). The role of the superior vestibular nerve in generating ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration at Fz. Clinical Neurophysiology, 120(3), 588-593. [More Information]
  • Cornell, E., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H., Curthoys, I. (2009). Vertical and horizontal eye movement responses to unilateral and bilateral bone conducted vibration to the mastoid. Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium and Orientation, 19(1-2), 41-47.

2008

  • Iwasaki, S., Smulders, Y., Burgess, A., McGarvie, L., MacDougall, H., Halmagyi, G., Curthoys, I. (2008). Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to bone-conducted vibration of the midline forehead at Fz: a new indicator of unilateral otolithic loss. Audiology and Neurotology (Previously: Audiology and Neuro-Otology until 2004), 13(6), 396-404. [More Information]
  • Iwasaki, S., Smulders, Y., Burgess, A., McGarvie, L., MacDougall, H., Halmagyi, G., Curthoys, I. (2008). Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to bone conducted vibration of the midline forehead at Fz in healthy subjects. Clinical Neurophysiology, 119(9), 2135-2147. [More Information]
  • Goonetilleke, S., Mezey, L., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2008). On the relation between ocular torsion and visual perception of line orientation. Vision Research, 48(13), 1488-1496.

2007

  • Iwasaki, S., McGarvie, L., Halmagyi, M., Burgess, A., Kim, J., Colebatch, J., Curthoys, I. (2007). Head taps evoke a crossed vestibulo-ocular reflex. Neurology, 68(15), 1227-1229. [More Information]

2006

  • Vibert, N., Hoang, T., Gilchrist, D., MacDougall, H., Burgess, A., Roberts, R., Vidal, P., Curthoys, I. (2006). Psychophysiological correlates of the inter-individual variability of head movement control in seated humans. Gait and Posture, 23(3), 355-363. [More Information]
  • Burgess, A., Hunstead, R. (2006). The Molonglo Southern 4 Jy sample (MS4). I. Definition. The Astronomical Journal, 131(1), 100-113.
  • Burgess, A., Hunstead, R. (2006). The Molonglo Southern 4 Jy sample (MS4). II. ATCA imaging and optical identification. The Astronomical Journal, 131(1), 114-132.

2005

  • MacDougall, H., Brizuela, A., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I., Halmagyi, G. (2005). Patient and Normal Three-dimensional Eye-Movement Responses to Maintained (DC) Surface Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation. Otology & Neurotology, 26(3), 500-511. [More Information]

2004

  • Mezey, L., Curthoys, I., Burgess, A., Goonetilleke, S., MacDougall, H. (2004). Changes In Ocular Torsion Position Produced By A Single Visual Line Rotating Around The Line Of Sight - Visual 'Entrainment' Of Ocular Torsion. Vision Research, 44(4), 397-406.
  • Goonetilleke, S., Curthoys, I., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H. (2004). Cognitive Demand Affects The Gain Of The Torsional Optokinetic Response. Experimental Brain Research, 158(1), 125-128. [More Information]
  • Ooi, D., Cornell, E., Curthoys, I., Burgess, A., MacDougall, H. (2004). Convergence Reduces Ocular Counterroll (OCR) During Static Roll-Tilt. Vision Research, 44(24), 2825-2833.

2003

  • Cartwright, A., Gilchrist, D., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2003). A realistic neural-network simuation of both slow and quick phase components of the guinea pig VOR. Experimental Brain Research, 149(3), 299-311.
  • Gilchrist, D., Cartwright, A., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2003). Behavioural characteristics of the quick phase of vestibular nystagmus before and after unilateral labyrinthectomy in guinea pig. Experimental Brain Research, 149(3), 289-298.

2002

  • MacDougall, H., Brizuela, A., Burgess, A., Curthoys, I. (2002). Between-subject variability and within-subject reliability of the human eye-movement response to bilateral galvanic (DC) vestibular stimulation. Experimental Brain Research, , 69-78. [More Information]

2001

  • MacDougall, H., Gilchrist, D., Burgess, A., Sidis, A., Curthoys, I., Vibert, N., de, W., Migliaccio, A., Vidal, P. (2001). Variability in the control of head movements in seated humans: a link with whiplash injuries? The Journal of Physiology, 532, 851-868.

2000

  • Gilchrist, D., Curthoys, I., Burgess, A., Cartwright, A., Jinnouchi, K., MacDougall, H., Halmagyi, G. (2000). Semicircular canal occlusion causes permanent VOR changes. NeuroReport, 11, 2527-2531.

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