Paper in Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Dwyer, D. M., Boakes, R. A. and Hayward, A. J. (2008) Reduced palatability in lithium- and activity-based, but not in amphetamine-based, taste aversion learning. Behavioral Neuroscience, 122(5), 1051-1060.

    Conditioned taste aversions (CTA) based on lithium chloride (Experiment 1), amphetamine (Experiment 2), and wheel running (Experiment 3) were examined using the analysis of the microstructure of licking to measure the palatability of the taste serving as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Pairing saccharin with amphetamine reduced saccharin intake without reducing the size of licking clusters, initial lick rate, or the distribution of inter-lick intervals (ILIs) within a cluster. By contrast, pairing saccharin with lithium or wheel-running reduced saccharin intake as well as lick cluster size, initial lick rate, and the distribution of ILIs within a cluster. As lick cluster size, initial lick rate, and ILI distribution can be used as indices of stimulus palatability, the current results indicate that taste aversions based on either lithium or activity reduced the palatability of the CS. This suggests that aversions based on both lithium and wheel running involve conditioned nausea to the CS taste. The absence of similar changes in licking microstructure with amphetamine-based CTA is consistent with other evidence indicating this does not involve nausea.