Paper in Social and Personality Psychology Compass
  • Roberts, R. D., MacCann, C., Matthews, G., & Zeidner, M. (2010). Emotional intelligence: Towards a consensus of models, measures, and applications. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10, 821-840.

    ABSTRACT
    This article outlines the many different ways that emotional intelligence (EI) has been conceptualized, measured, and used from the early antecedents of emotional abilities such as facial expression research to the recent multi-media assessment paradigms. The divide between models describing EI as a character trait versus modeling EI as a form of information processing or knowledge is described, with both kinds of models evaluated based on theory and empirical evidence. It is concluded that the latter type of model, exemplified by the four-branch hierarchical model of EI, is the only logical construct to bear the label “emotional intelligence”. Potential emendations to the way EI is currently conceptualized and measures are discussed, including emotion recognition assessments, situational judgment tests, and multi-media assessments such as the empathic agent paradigm. The paper concludes with a suggested agenda for future research in the EI field.