THIS PAGE LAST MODIFIED : Sunday 13 August 2017 15:42


A biographical register of Australian colonial musical personnel–O

Dr GRAEME SKINNER (University of Sydney)


THIS PAGE IS ALWAYS UNDER CONSTRUCTION


To cite this:

Graeme Skinner (University of Sydney), "A biographical register of Australian colonial musical personnel–O", Australharmony (an online resource toward the history of music and musicians in colonial and early Federation Australia): http://sydney.edu.au/paradisec/australharmony/register-O.php; accessed 20 August 2017




- O -




OAKEY, Alfred

Pianist, composer, cornet-a-piston player, professor of music

Arrived Melbourne, VIC, by July 1853
Died Wellington, NZ, 7 December 1896


OAKEY, Mrs. Alfred

Vocalist


Summary:

Alfred Oakey's Crystal Palace Valse was played by Winterbottom's band at Rowe's Circus in Melbourne in July 1853, while Oakey himself appeared with Julia Harland and George Peck in the New Music Room at the Dixon Hotel. At Rowe's Circus in January 1854, he introduced two new descriptive dance sets of his own, The Melbourne and Brighton Railway galop (an entirely new galop) [with list of numbers] and The Highland polka (introducing favourite Scottish Airs) [airs listed]. In December 1854 he was advertising: "VICTORIA THEATRE, late Rowe's Circus. The most efficient Melo-dramatic Company in the Colony. Proprietor, Alfred Oakey."

The couple were in Ballarat at the Star Concert Hall in September 1855. At James Mulholland's benefit there in September 1856, three songs with words by Mulholland and "music composed by Mr. Oakey" were sung, Song for the bush (sung by Mrs. Oakey), Ballarat proper (Mr. D. Golding), and The forthcoming election (Mulholland). They were back in Melbourne in  June 1857 at Dilke's Concert Hall, where "Composer and Musical Director", Oakey introduced his The colonies: the new local chorus ("composed and arranged by Alfred Oakey, esq.").

Back in Ballarat in April 1859, Mrs. Oakey billed as "the Ballarat favourite" made her "first appearance these three years" in April 1859. They were still in Australia in mid-1863, but were already appearing in New Zealand, with Madame Vitelli-Thatcher in January 1864, Alfred at the time also being briefly committed for "mental affliction". They settled there; Alfred died in 1896.


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Argus (29 July 1853), 8

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4795724

[Advertisement], The Argus (30 July 1853), 8

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4795134

"THE QUEEN'S THEATRE", The Argus (15 October 1853), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4798157

[Advertisement], The Argus (28 January 1854), 8

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4802560

[Advertisement], The Argus (8 December 1854), 8

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4801491

[Advertisement], The Star (22 September 1855), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66038937

[Advertisement], The Star (30 August 1856), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66039330

[Advertisement], The Star (19 April 1959), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66335266

[Advertisement], The Star (14 April 1863), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72557517

"NEW INSOLVENTS", The Star (27 April 1863), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72556543

"DRAMATIC AND MUSICAL ENTERTAINMENT", Portland Guardian (29 June 1863), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article64629085

"MR. AND MRS. OAKEY AT THE LYCEUM", Portland Guardian (2 July 1863), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article64629105

 [News], Southland Times (4 January 1864), 2

https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ST18640104.2.10

"RESIDENT MAGISTRATE'S COURT. RECOVERED", Southland Times (18 January 1864), 3

https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ST18640118.2.16

"DEATH OF MR. ALFRED OAKEY", Nelson Evening Mail (7 December 1896), 2

https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/NEM18961207.2.10

Many old citizens of Nelson will learn with deep regret of the somewhat sudden death in Wellington to-day of Mr. Alfred Oakey, of Bridge-street, Mr. Oakey had been ailing for a couple of years, and had been accompanied by Mrs. Oakey to Wellington for his health a few weeks ago, but no one thought that the end would be so sudden. Mr. Oakey when in good health was closely associated with musical movements in Nelson. He came here from Melbourne with the late Richmond Tatcher [?Charles Thatcher] in the year of the Nelson Exhibition, and he joined the local volunteers at that date. He was thereafter bandmaster of the Garrison Band for 15 years. Mr. Oakey was in Victoria in the early mining days and he was present in the stirring scenes of the Ballarat riots, being at that time a close companion of the late Sir Peter Lalor. In Nelson Mr. Oakey was greatly liked and much respected for his quiet unassuming geniality and for his fortitude under great suffering. He has left a widow and a family of five ...


Extant musical works:

Annie of the vale (London: John Turner, n.d.)

http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/6055198

The Crystal Palace Waltzes (London: John  Oakey's, n.d.)

http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/6055318


Disambiguation (?):

http://nla.gov.au/nla.party-1482912

DAAO: Alfred Oakley [sic]


Other:

[Playbill, Rowe's American Circus, Melbourne, 1853]

http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/7919387


Bibliography and resources:

Doggett 2006




OATEN, John

English concertina player, minstrel, musician

Born London
Active Melbourne/NZ, by 1862
Died Dunedin, NZ, 10 October 1887


Documentation:

"THE ELI WHITNEY", Nelson Examiner (21 May 1862), 2

https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/NENZC18620521.2.3

"THE COURT MINSTRELS", The Maitland Mercury (7 May 1863), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18695274

"MARRIAGES", The Sydney Morning Herald (10 August 1864), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13105608

"MARRIAGE", Empire (13 August 1864), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60557543

"ST. JAMES'S HALL", Empire (16 May 1870), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63107112

"DEATH BY SCALDING", Evening News (25 July 1870), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107125275

"TEMPERANCE HALL", Empire (8 August 1870), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63109990

On Thursday night the English concertina performer, Mr. J. Oaten, takes a complimentary benefit at the Temperance Hall, tendered by several professional and amateur vocalists. The recipient has been many years known in the "Minstrel Bands," and was formerly one of the leading members of the Court and Campbell Minstrels. As Mr. Oaten has suffered lately by sustaining a family bereavement, a crowded house would not only on that account be acceptable, but it would serve at the same time as a mark of appreciation of his talent as a musician, and reward him for the many charitable benefits he has gratuitously given his services to.

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (16 March 1875), 8

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13353499

"CONCERT", Otago Daily Times (1 October 1881), 2

https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT18811001.2.22

"LARCENY AS BAILEE", Otago Daily Times (26 January 1884), 4

https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT18840126.2.28

John Oaten was charged that, being the bailee of an English concertina, value £8, the property of William Benjamin Eyre, he did, on the 19th inst., feloniously convert the same to his own use. The accused pleaded guilty, and in order to enable the case to be dealt with summarily, the specified value of the article was reduced to £5. Detective Henderson said that the complainant had shown a good deal of kindness to the accused, but the latter had proved ungrateful. On several occasions complainant had lent his concertina to the accused, who had pawned it, and the complainant had had to release it. The complainant wished that the accused should be dealt leniently with, as he had a family to support. The accused was a quiet, inoffensive man, and his present trouble was occasioned by drink. The Bench consented to take a lenient view of the case, and sentenced the accused to seven days' imprisonment.

"DEATHS", Otago Daily Times (2 November 1887), 5

https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT18871102.2.44




O'BRIAN, Patrick

Vocalist (St. Patrick's Church choir)

Active Melbourne, 1866


Documentation:

"CITY COURT", The Argus (5 October 1866), 7

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5775149




O'CONNELL, Mary (Mary BLIGH; Mrs. Mary PUTLAND; Lady O'CONNELL)

Patron of music, governor's daughter (Bligh)

Born Douglas, Isle of Man, 1 April 1783
First Australian stay, 1806-14 (as Mrs. John PUTLAND, and from 1810 as Mrs. Maurice O'CONNELL)
Second Australian stay, 1838-48 (as Lady O'CONNELL)
Died Gloucester, England, 10 December 1863

http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-136435313 (NLA persistent identifier)

http://trove.nla.gov.au/result?l-publictag=Mary+Bligh+Putland+O'Connell+1783-1863 (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)





O'CONNOR, William (Billy CONNERS)

Violinist

Died Gundagai, NSW, 1906


Documentation:

"ALL ABOUT PEOPLE", The Gundagai Independent and Pastoral, Agricultural and Mining Advocate (13 October 1906), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article120260719

Writes 'H. N. T.':- There died in the Gundagai hospital last week a man who was known out back for a number of years past. I refer to Mr. Wm. O'Connor, or 'Billy Conners,' as he was more generally known. Billy was a man who had seen better days, being fairly educated and well-read. He was very fond of the violin, and could play this instrument well, and was never really happy unless he had the bow in his hand and was rattling off a jig or a schottische. Mr. Connors, who was a quiet and unassuming man, had been a martyr to bronchial asthma for a number of years, but during the winter this developed into acute pneumonia, which eventually carried him off. Mr. O'Connor, who has relatives well-to-do at Dubbo, was a cousin of Mr Justice O'Connor of the Fed. High Court. Of poor old 'Billy' it may truly be said - 'After life's fitful fever, he sleeps well.'




OELMANN, Hermann (OEHLMANN)

Tenor vocalist

Arrived SA, c.1857 (by November 1859)
Died Adelaide, SA, 25 January 1889, aged 48


Summary:

About 18 years of age at the time, Oelmann's first solo concert appearances were for Cutolo in November 1859, and the following month he participated in the first public performance of Linger's Song of Australia.


References: [Advertisement], The South Australian Advertiser (1 November 1859), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1198764

"SIGNOR CUTOLO'S CONCERT", South Australian Register (5 November 1859), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49825647

"GRAND CONCERT AT THE GAWLER INSTITUTE", The South Australian Advertiser (14 December 1859), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1200209

"Concert", Süd Australische Zeitung (4 October 1862), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article83805533

"DEATHS", South Australian Register (27 November 1879), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article43092233

"DEATHS, South Australian Register (26 January 1889), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47056301

"OBITUARY", South Australian Register (28 January 1889), 7

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47053193

Mr. Hermann Adolph Theodore Oelmann, the noted tenor singer, who was well known and much respected throughout South Australia, aged 48; a native of Brunswick, Germany, and came to the colony about 1857; leaves a widow, three sons, and a daughter.

"Our Adelaide Letter", The Inquirer & Commercial News (15 February 1889), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66090682

Yesterday [27 January] there was consigned to his final rest one whom possibly many of your readers may have known, whose remarkably fine voice many may have heard - Mr. Hermann Oelmann, formerly, I believe, a partner in the firm of G. & R. Wills & Co., latterly of the King of Hanover Hotel. As a musician he never grudged his services to any good cause, and thousands assembled to pay the last tribute of respect to his memory. The Liedertafel, of which he was a member sang Mendelssohn's beautiful, " It is decreed," in the chamber of their departed friend, ere they bore their old comrade's coffin to the hearse. In the funeral cortege the members of the United Order of Odd fellows led the way, while the Liedertafel, headed by their banner draped with crape, followed the hearse; over a hundred mourning and private carriages, containing the relatives and friends of the deceased, coming next, whilst the streets were thronged with pedestrians who accompanied the mournful procession to the cemetery. The Rev. J. C. Woods conducted the service at the grave, the Liedertafel singing with much pathos "Grabe's Ruha" [sic] at their commencement, and ere turning away from the open grave, the appropriate song " Sleep well our comrade." Many members of the Masonic fraternity, of which Mr. Oelmann was a brother, were present.


Associations: Schrader family (related)




O'FLAHERTY, Henry Charles

Professor of the violin and Spanish guitar, theatre-band violinist, actor, comic vocalist

Born, UK, c.1819
Arrived Sydney, NSW, by July 1840
Departed Sydney, NSW, 1 April 1846 (per Kinnear, for London)
Died London, England; buried Highgate Cemetery, 3 November 1854, aged 35

http://trove.nla.gov.au/result?l-publictag=Henry+Charles+O'Flaherty  (TROVE tagged by Australharmony)


O'FLAHERTY, Mrs. = Eliza WINSTANLEY


Summary:

In July and August 1840, O'Flaherty widely advertised his commencement in Sydney as a "professor of the violin and Spanish guitar". He probably joined the theatre orchestra around this time, for by December it was evidently well known that he and the leading lady, Eliza Winstanley, were to marry. On 30 December, a local youth, thought to have been in the pit at the theatre that night, threatened Eliza as she left the theatre at about midnight. O'Flaherty intervened to protect her. Brought to court the following morning, the defendant Charles Davis, "a lad about sixteen years of age, a native of the colony" was reported to have been wearing a "cabbage-tree hat".

This tale of theatrical chivalry inspired the Monitor to print that same day, the first part of a humorous poem on "The battle of the Cabbage-tree", in which O'Flaherty was cast as "The Knight of the Fiddle, Champion of the fair Eliza ... (not his first appearance in that character)". Richard Fotheringham suggests that the author may have been O'Flaherty himself. The couple were married at St. James's, Sydney, on 6 February 1841, and Eliza is first referred to in the press as Mrs. O'Flaherty shortly afterward.

O'Flaherty is listed among the theatre band for Maria Prout's concert in March 1841, made his stage debut in character at Eliza's benefit in May, and was in the band again for Nathan's oratorio in July. On 9 July he left for Hobart to join Eliza at the theatre there. At Eliza's benefit in August, Henry "on the Spanish Guitar, shewed that he was a master of the instrument, although it was in such bad order, that he was unable to go through with his Solo, to the great disappointment of all present".

Henry took his benefit later that month before the company departed for Launceston. Back in Sydney in February 1842, he was declared insolvent. By May 1842, he had taken over as manager of the Olympic Theatre. Having finally been discharged from insolvency in February 1846, the couple left for London.


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Sydney Monitor (28 July 1840), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32184168

"BREACH OF THE PEACE", Australasian Chronicle (31 December 1840), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31730323

"THESPIS IN AUSTRALIA, OR, THE STAGE IN DANGER", The Sydney Monitor (31 December 1840), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32187738

"The battle of the Cabbage-Tree, A POEM. CANTO I. THE ASSAULT", The Sydney Monitor (6 January 1841), 2

ttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32187835

"The battle of the Cabbage-Tree, A POEM. CANTO II. THE BANQUET", The Sydney Monitor (11 January 1841), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32187889

"ROYAL VICTORIA THEATRE", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (18 February 1841), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2552558

[Advertisement], The Sydney Monitor (24 march 1841), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32188716

[Advertisement], The Sydney Herald (6 May 1841), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12869010

"Summary of Public Intelligence", The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (6 May 1841), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2553245

[Advertisement], Australasian Chronicle (5 June 1841), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31731940

"DEPARTURES", Australasian Chronicle (10 July 1841), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31732244

"THE THEATRE", Colonial Times (10 August 1841), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8751940

"THEATRE", The Courier (27 August 1841), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2955729

"INSOLVENT ESTATES", The Sydney Herald (19 February 1842), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12873807

[Advertisement], The Sydney Herald (17 May 1842), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12875212

"INSOLVENCY PROCEEDINGS", The Sydney Morning Herald (26 January 1846), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12884911

"DEPARTURES", Morning Chronicle (4 April 1846), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31747723

"THEATRICALS", Sydney Chronicle (24 April 1847), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31751670


Bibliography and resources:

N. M. Robinson, "O'Flaherty, Eliza (1818-1882)", Australian dictionary of biography 2 (1967)

http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/oflaherty-eliza-2520

Fotheringham 2006




OHLFSEN-BAGGE, Emil

Teacher of piano and singing (Berlin Conservatory of Music)

Active Australia 1871-81


OHLFSEN-BAGGE, Dora

Pianist (pupil of Henri Kowalski), sculptor

Born Ballarat, ? 1867/1870 (daughter of C. H. Ohlfsen-Bagge and his wife Kate)
Died Rome, Italy, 1948

Image: http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/167578090


OHLFSEN-BAGGE, Rita (BAGGÉ)

Pianist


Documentation:

[Advertisement], Bendigo Advertiser (8 June 1871), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article87970087

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (3 April 1872), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13255185

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (17 January 1876), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13366485

[Advertisement], The Mercury (12 October 1878), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8969038

[Advertisement], South Australian Register (31 December 1879), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article43096664

[Advertisement], The Brisbane Courier (4 April 1881), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article913591

"ENTERTAINMENT AT KOGARAH", The Sydney Morning Herald (25 August 1894), 7

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13965505

"A SYDNEY MUSICIAN", The Inquirer & Commercial News (6 November 1896), 14

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66536419

Amateurs of music will regret to hear that Miss Dora Ohlfsen-Baggé, the young pianist who left this city to study at Berlin, has been obliged to give up work for a time in order to recruit her health (says a Sydney contemporary). Miss Ohlfsen-Baggé studied at Berlin under Herr Moskowski and Fraulein Emma Koch until last autumn, when she broke down, and went to visit friends at Aromenbaun, on the Gulf of Finland. The young artist has now settled for a time at St. Petersburg, where she has met Glazounow, a new Russian composer, "tall, solemn, pale, who does not walk but moves," supposed to be the successor of Tschaikowsky.

"Local and General", The Campbelltown Herald (26 June 1901), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article102168675


Bibliography and resources:

http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/t/a/l/Geert-Talst/WEBSITE-0001/UHP-0021.html

Dora Ohlfsen-Bagge, DAAO

Elizabeth Ashburn, Ohlfsen, Dora, in Robert Aldrich and Garry Wotherspoon (eds.), Who's who in gay and lesbian history from antiquity to World War II (London: Routledge, 2001), 333




O'KEEFE, Constantine (Mr. C. O'KEEFE)

Violinist, music teacher

Active Goulburn, NSW, by 1887


Documentation:

"Our Boys Amateur Dramatic Club", Goulburn Evening Penny Post (8 September 1887), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article98474190

The most notable feature in the entertainment was the performance of Mr. C. O'Keefe's string band of eight performers, who made their first appearance on this occasion. They rendered several selections in a style which shows that the band numbers amongst its members some able instrumentalists, and their contribution to the evening's entertainment was highly appreciated. The members of the band are -Mr. C. O'Keefe, first violin; Messrs. B. Donnelly, Passmore, and J. Lynch, second violins; Mr. A. Badcock, flute; Mr. J. Slatyer, cornet; Mr. Percy Hollis, piano; Mr. J. M. Glynn, double bass.

"Academy Orchestra", Goulburn Evening Penny Post (12 October 1889), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article98488512

"PRESENTATIONS. Mr. C. O'KEEFE, music teacher ...", Goulburn Evening Penny Post (11 February 1896), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article98568184




OLDHAM, Mary (Mrs. Thomas HARBOTTLE)

Amateur composer, pianist, vocalist

Active Hobart, 1862


Documentation:

"COLONIAL MUSIC", The Mercury (26 June 1862), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8808068

"THE TASMANIAN YACHT CLUB POLKA", Launceston Examiner (26 June 1862), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article41454125

? "MARRIAGES", The Mercury (23 November 1865), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8836186

"CONCERT", The Mercury (3 May 1870), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8868007

"CONCERT IN THE TOWN HALL", The Mercury (6 July 1881), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8998609


Musical works:

The Tasmanian Yacht Club polka respectfully dedicated to the members of the club by Miss Mary Oldham (Hobart Town: J. Walch & Sons, n.d. [1862])

http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/9854765 




OLDHAM, William C.

Amateur musician, bandmaster, conductor, composer

Born Dublin, Ireland, 9 February 1811
Arrived South Australia, 1838 (per Lord Godrich)
Died 1885, aged 75


Documentation:

"NEW MUSIC", South Australian Register (12 January 1861), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article50020159

"COLONIAL MUSIC", South Australian Register (26 December 1861), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article50082179

"NEW MUSIC", South Australian Register (10 February 1871), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article39255348

[Advertisement]: "THE MARION WALTZ", South Australian Register (17 February 1871), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article39245922

"KAPUNDA", South Australian Register (22 August 1873), 7

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article39300149

"DEATH OF MR. W. OLDHAM, OF KAPUNDA", South Australian Register (4 July 1885), 7

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article44945846

... He was, moreover, an earnest lover of music, and his practical mind soon caused his love for the art to show itself in useful work. He trained the band of the Mine Rifles, which earned for itself a reputation which has deservedly outlived it; also as conductor of the Philharmonic Society he was for years engaged in raising the standard of music in the town ...


Musical works:

The Kapunda Rifle Volunteers' schottische ([Adelaide: Penman and Galbraith, 1861])

The Kapunda Rifles schottische (Adelaide; Sims and Elliott, [??])

The Kapunda Rifle schottische (Adelaide: S. Marshall & Son., [??])

The Marion waltz ("composed by Mr. W. C. Oldham, of Kapunda") ([Adelaide: For private circulation, 1871])




OLIVER, Mr.

Music teacher

Active Melbourne, 1869


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Argus (12 July 1869), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5821030

MISS E. SMITH wishes to communicate with Mr. Oliver, music teacher.




ONIONS, John

See main page John Onions




ONN, Constantia (Madame ONN)

Mezzo-soprano vocalist, pianist, ballad singer, songwriter, composer

Active Victoria, by 1855
Died Geelong, 21 December 1876


Documentation:

"BALLARAT", The Argus (20 August 1855), 7

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4815743

"MECHANICS' INSTITUTE SOIREE", The Star (27 April 1857), 2s

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66041937

[Advertisement], The Star (3 October 1857), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66044533

[Advertisement], The Argus (25 August 1868), 8

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5825245

[Advertisement], The Argus (18 September 1868), 8

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5827456

[News], The Argus (24 November 1873), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5876113

[News], The Argus (23 December 1876), 7

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5912811

Madame Onn, a well-known teacher of music, met with a very sudden death on Thursday night at her residence, in Geelong. She was playing the piano in apparently good health, when a kind of paralysis suddenly seized her, and on rising she fell down, and expired before medical aid could be obtained.

"VICTORIA", The Mercury (2 January 1877), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8950240


Musical work:

The Grecian polka ([Melbourne, 1873]), no copy identified




ORCHARD, William Arundel

Musician, violinist, educator, conductor, composer, writer

Born London, 13 April 1867
Arrived Albany, WA, 31 August 1895 (on the Ormuz, from England)
Died at sea, 7 April 1961 (on the Dominion Monarch, returning from Europe)

http://nla.gov.au/nla.party-523416 (NLA persistent identifier)


THIS ENTRY IS A STUB


Documentation:

"SHIPPING", The Inquirer and Commercial News (6 September 1895), 8

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72378989

"NEWS AND NOTES", The West Australian (9 September 1895), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4543787

MR. W. ARUNDEL ORCHARD, Bachelor of Music, Associate of the Royal College of Organists, has just recently arrived from England, and intends settling in Perth as a teacher of music. He has had a large teaching experience, and has been conductor of several London orchestral and choral societies. Mr. Orchard also holds authority from Trinity College, London, to form a local centre for both theoretical and practical examinations in music. These centres are very popular in the Eastern colonies. It may be added that Sir William Robinson has recently been appointed a vice-president of Trinity College.

"MUSICAL CULTURE IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA" [editorial], The Daily News (11 October 1895), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article81386670

"MUSICAL", The Mercury (8 February 1897), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article9391130

MUSICAL. Mr. Arundel Orchard, Mus. Bac. (England), who has been appointed to St. David's Cathedral, is said to possess the musical tastes and talents which will be approbated in Hobart. He has a reputation as a conductor of no mean standard in choral und orchestral work, and his powers in this direction have been turned to good account in West Australia, where Sir Gerard Smith has taken great interest in the work of his societies. Mr. Orchard takes up his duties at St. David's on March 1, and will doubtless upon his arrival make preparations for orchestral and choral work during the winter months.

"PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY'S CONCERT", The Mercury (10 May 1899), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article9447732

... Next came "The wreck of the Hesperus," a ballad for chorus and orchestra, composed by the conductor and dedicated to the society. This is undoubtedly a scholarly work, containing many passages of original, pleasing, and even sparkling music. In many respects the composition is Wagnerian in style and spirit to a considerable extent. This is especially noticeable in the colouring, dramatic intensity, and sonorous effects produced. Certainly the beautiful poem of Longfellow's lends itself very favourably to such a style of writing. It was stated on the programme that in setting the words to music the composer had endeavoured to keep well in view three dominant features of the poem (1) the wild and terrible night at sea; (2) the brave, unheeding, yet loving father; and (3) the gentle, but terror-stricken daughter; and that with such a continuous narrative it was deemed expedient to avoid making any distinct conclusion in the music until the end, and thereby secure a closer alliance to the words. Undoubtedly Mr. Orchard's severest critics will warmly commend the idea. The first part of the composition is picturesquely written. As the narrative proceeds to the incidents of the girl's forebodings and distress the music is weird, and is occasionally somewhat lacking in apt expression; but when the description of the wreck is reached there is some splendid dramatic writing in the composition, and which last evening seemed to not only move the chorus, but also the audience, and will no doubt be most highly praised by all competent to judge. The chorus gave a spirited rendering of the ballad throughout, as though feeling proud of their conductor's work. The orchestra did very well. There were a few slips, but their breadth of tone and execution was highly creditable. At the conclusion of the performance the audience applauded with much enthusiasm, Mr. Orchard, as conductor and composer, being twice recalled, and a handsome bouquet of flowers was sent up to him.

"MUSIC IN THE AUSTRALIAN COLONIES", Musical News [UK] 18 (1900), 517; reprinted: "MUSIC IN THE AUSTRALIAN COLONIES (Musical News)", The Mercury (4 August 1900), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12806348 

MUSIC IN THE AUSTRALIAN COLONIES ("Musical News.") Musical progress in the colonies has quickened considerably during the last few years. Until recently the commercial atmosphere has been so pronounced that art has had a poor time of it. For a considerable time the majority of people that went to the Colonies remained with the one idea of money making and spending their leisure in the pursuit of outdoor pleasures which the climate in that part of the world renders so alluring. In a lesser degree the same condition exists with the people now, but there has been time for many to regard the Colonies as their home. Consequently the desire for art, where it existed, has taken the outward form of an effort to cultivate and develop a closer and deeper acquaintance with the better forms of the particular art most congenial.

Probably he first serious attempt on a large scale to put music in a recognised position was the engagement in the year 1888 by the authorities of the Melbourne Exhibition, of Mr. F. H. Cowen as Musical director. It is probably known that Mr. Cowen took with him from London several instrumentalists, the remainder of his orchestra being made up of players resident in the Colonies. All told the orchestra numbered 73, including five extra string players. The chorus numbered 709. The success of this venture is a matter of history. Concerts of a high order were frequently given and the total number of orchestral and choral works was 265. There is no doubt that the 10 months' engagement of Mr. Cowen and his forces gave a great impetus to the music of the Colonies. His public became acquainted with the best works, given in a manner reflecting the highest credit on all concerned. An extract from the official record of the Continental [recte Centennial] International Exhibition will be of interest: "It was anticipated that not only would these conceits be a source of pleasure to those visiting the exhibition, but that the stimulation of a love of good music for its own sake and the consequent elevation of the public taste would amply repay the expenditure that would necessarily be incurred.

At the present time time very good orchestral concerts may be heard in Melbourne. Especially good is Mr. Marshall-Hall's orchestra, which gives really finished performances. The Philharmonic Society, with its large chorus and orchestra, has an excellent repertoire, to which it is constantly adding.

Sydney, with its Liedertafel and orchestral societies, is not behind Melbourne in musical progress. Indeed, it would be difficult to say which of these two cities is making the most satisfactory headway. In both can be found many excellent professors of the various departments of the art, some of them doing most useful work. Both Melbourne and Adelaide Universities are fortunate in having a Chair of Music. In New Zealand the four affiliated colleges of the University teach and examine in music, but there is no Chair, nearly all the examination papers being sent home to examiners specially appointed.

When the University of Queensland is established - a bill for that purpose having already come before its Government - it will have powers to grant degrees in music as in Tasmania, where the Council of the University has already before it the question of granting musical degrees by examination. It is healthy to see musical activity existing in the educational centre of each colony, and much good must be the result in the not far distant future.

In 1895 an exhibition was held at Hobart, Tasmania, and an interesting feature was the engagement of an orchestra consisting of Tasmanians and those resident in the other colonies, under the direction of Mr. Otto Linden.

The concert tours made by many great artists from England are an important factor in the musical education of the colony. It will be remembered that Sir Charles and Lady Halle, Mr. Santley, Madame Albani, Ovide Musin and others received most enthusiastic receptions throughout their tours. The colonies are ever ready to give a cordial welcome where it is merited.

Ecclesiastical music is not as advanced as it might be. With a few notable exceptions, mainly cathedrals, musical services are at a low ebb. It is difficult to keep a choir together for any length of time, and often it is a question of local limitations mainly owing to the great isolation of many churches from the larger centres.

The examinations of the Associated Board and Trinity College London, have found a good field in this quarter of the globe. The number of entries for the Practice and Theory of Music is increasing greatly each year. The returns of the examinations would be interesting as evidence of the importance now being given to music in the general education of young colonials. Even the higher examinations are now in request.

Another interesting feature is the continued success of intercolonial band contests which take place annually and are the direct cause of much progress in this important department of music. The competition is frequently very keen, and the selected pieces invariably demand performances of no mean order.

Nothing has been said of West Australia, for the reason that it is early to give this colony a place in musical history. Perth has had and still has, some societies doing their best for the art, but hitherto the material has been of too migratory a nature and not sufficiently strong to maintain anything satisfactory. West Australia has a future and it is to be hoped that music will got its fair share of attention.

- W. Arundel Orchard.


Sources:

NLA, MS 5782, Paper of Dr. William Arundel Orchard

http://trove.nla.gov.au/version/11551993

www.nla.gov.au/ms/findaids/5782.html 


Associations:

William Robinson




OSBORNE, W. F. (Mr.)

Violinist

Active Adelaide, by July 1850; Melbourne, by April 1852


Summary:

Osborne was leader of the Adelaide Choral Society for its July concert in 1850. Osborne made his "first appearance" in Melbourne playing a violin solo at a Thursday Concert in April 1852, part of a recent musical migration that also included Huenerbein and Mater.


Documentation:

[Advertisement], South Australian (12 July 1850), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71626692

[News], South Australian Register (1 August 1850), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article38442662

... In the second part, a selection of airs from "Guillaume Tell," by Mr. Osborne on the violin and Mrs. Murray on the piano, were deservedly applauded ...

[Advertisement], South Australian Register (21 May 1851), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article38434977

[Advertisement], South Australian Register (14 October 1851), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article38450038

"THURSDAY'S CONCERT", The Argus (7 April 1852), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4784216

[Advertisement], The Argus (5 June 1852), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4785541

[Advertisement], The Argus (31 July 1852), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4786543


PLAUSIBLY IDENTICAL WITH:


OSBORNE, Ferdinand W.

Violinist, professor of music (pupil of Baillot and Toulbecque, Paris Conservatoire)

Active Beechworth, VIC, by 1857
Died Urana, NSW, 23 November 1898


Documentation:

[Advertisement], Ovens and Murray Advertiser (7 January 1857), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113013572

[Advertisement], Ovens and Murray Advertiser (16 March 1857), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113014470

[Advertisement], Ovens and Murray Advertiser (15 February 1858), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113236690

[Advertisement], Ovens and Murray Advertiser (14 October 1858), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112898605

"BUCKLAND POLICE COURT", Ovens and Murray Advertiser (27 December 1862), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112892484

"MURRUMBURRAH", Australian Town and Country Journal (31 January 1880), 39

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70940709

[Advertisement], Australian Town and Country Journal (24 December 1881) 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70963589

FERDINAND OSBORNE (Solo Violin. Mr. A. Mellon's Concerts, Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden; Royal Opera, St. Felice, Cadiz, &c.) will be in Sydney about the 22nd instant. Will organise Concert Company for New Zealand, &c.

"A PROMINENT VIOLINIST", Albury Banner and Wodonga Express (10 December 1897), 23

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article99415185

"DEATHS", Albury Banner and Wodonga Express (16 December 1898), 40

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article99975666

"DEATH OF AN OLD BORDER RESIDENT", Albury Banner and Wodonga Express (16 December 1898), 23

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article99975618

We regret having to record the death at Urana on the 23rd ult. of Professor Ferdinand Osborne. Mr. Osborne, who was a highly cultivated musician and pupil of some of the leading violinists of 40 years ago, had resided for many years in the Border districts. In 1860 he was at Myrtle Creek, and he subsequently removed to Bright where he resided for a long time, and practised as a teacher of vocal and instrumental music. Subsequently he crossed the river into New South Wales and for a considerable period occupied the position of private tutor in the family of Mr. Warhurst, of Hidewell. A few years ago he took a trip to the old country, and upon returning retired from the active practice of his profession, to live on a small annuity left him by a brother. By some misfortune the capital sum representing the annuity was lost, and he had to again fall back upon his art. This, however, was only for a short period, as an attack of illness, added to the burden of advanced years, soon afterwards terminated a long and active life. Mr. Osborne was a very well informed man, more especially in all matters connected with music, and he had been on intimate terms with several of the most celebrated composers of the middle of the century. He was a kind hearted, genial, upright man, generally respected by all who knew him.


Associations: Teacher of Edie Warhurst (see 1897 above)




OSBORNE, Robert James

Comic vocalist, actor, convict

Active Launceston, VDL (TAS), by April 1846


Summary:

"MONSIEURS [sic] OSBORNE (From the London Theatres)" took the Olympic Theatre in Launceston in April 1846. There in May, Osborne was presenting a company described as the Sable Minstrels, perhaps one of the earliest actual companies of black-faced minstrels to appear in Australia. In June he was billed in a "COMIC SONG, "The Werry Identical Flute", by MR. OSBORNE, with drum and whistle accompaniment, by Masters F. and W. HOWSON, pupils of Mr. Osborne". On 10 July, "Mr. Howson and Song" (presumably then Francis senior and Masters F. and W.) took their benefit, which included:

A MUSICAL MELANGE.
SONG, "Parody on the Misletoe Bough", Mr OSBORNE
OVERTURE - BY THE BAND.
AIR, with Variation (Violin) MR. HOWSON
OVERTURE - BY THE BAND.
By particular desire, SONG, "Parody on Buy a Broom, Mr. OSBORNE.
By particular desire, NAVAL HORNPIPE, by MR.COONEY
VENETIAN STATUES By Masters W. & F. Howson, pupils of Mr. Osborne.

Osborne was still at the Olympic in 1849, but had moved to Sydney and was lessee of the Olympic Arena there by 1854.


Documentation:

[Tickets-of-leave], The Cornwall Chronicle (5 July 1845), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66269754

[Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (29 April 1846), 330

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66270405

"THE THEATRE", The Cornwall Chronicle (20 May 1846), 384

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article65943977

"THE THEATRE", The Cornwall Chronicle (10 June 1846), 439

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article65941843

[Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (10 June 1846), 440

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article65941832

[Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (17 June 1846), 461

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article65943669

[Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (4 July 1846), 512

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article65942131

[Advertisement], The Cornwall Chronicle (8 July 1846), 522

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article65944085

[Conditional pardons], The Cornwall Chronicle (5 December 1846), 948

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article65941608

"SYDNEY POLICE COURT", Empire (25 May 1854), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60196425




OSBORNE, S.

Teacher of music, composer

Active Sydney, NSW, 1876


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (31 August 1876), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13379273

"MUSIC", The Sydney Morning Herald (30 September 1876), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13380760

MUSIC - A few days ago we received from the composer Mrs. Osborne, a galop entitled the Neredah Galop dedicated to Miss Neredah Robinson, Government House. The galop commences in the key of F and changes into the key of B flat, taking up a second air, and again changing to the original theme. The music is printed by Messrs S. T. Leigh and Co.

[Advertisement], The Sydney Morning Herald (23 October 1876), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13382084


Musical work:

Neredah galop (dedicated to Miss Neredah Robinson, Government House) ([Sydney: printed by S. T. Leigh, 1876])

NO COPY IDENTIFIED




OTTO, Madame S.

Vocalist

Active SA, 1851


Documentation:

"CONCERT AT THE BURRA HOTEL", South Australian Gazette and Mining Journal (19 April 1851), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article195942162 

Mr. Bambrick, whose last concert, and particularly his own part of it, elicited so much eclat at Kooringa, has announced a grand concert, to take place on the evening of Easter Monday, the 21st inst, on which occasion will appear Madame S. Otto (guitar accompaniment), who will sing a solo, "Les Adieux" (The Adieus), composed by Dressler. The reported high attainments of this little German nightingale will, no doubt, secure a crowded audience.

"KOORINGA", South Australian Register (30 April 1851), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article38452078

Mr. Bambrick's second concert took place on Saturday, the 26th instant, when Madame Allen [recte Madame Otto] again appeared. Her reception on this occasion was most triumphant; one universal feeling of inexpressible rapture prevailed; every song was loudly encored, and the lady resumed her seat amidst great applause. The third concert, which is announced for some day this week, is looked forward to with no small degree of interest. This little Jenny Lind of the Burra seems to have quite infatuated the elite of the North.

"MR. BAMBRICK'S CONCERT", South Australian Register (7 May 1851), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article38444302 

We desire to correct an error in the notice of Mr. Bambriek's second concert at the Burra Hotel, which appeared in the Register of Wednesday last, and in which Madame Allen's name was inadvertently introduced instead of that of Madame Otto.




OUGH, Thomas

Amateur musician, bandmaster (The Adelaide Brass and Reed Band), clarinet player, stone mason

Born Devon, England, c.1799
Arrived Adelaide, SA, 27 September 1839 (from England, 21 May)
Died Mount Pleasant, SA, 15 July 1870, aged 71, a colonist of 31 years


Documentation:

"EXTRACTS FROM SETTLERS' LETTERS", The South Australian Colonist and Settlers' Weekly Record of British, Foreign and Colonial Intelligence [UK] (19 May 1840), 161

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228133333 

... The following letter from South Australia appeared in the Plymouth Herald on the 9th inst ... Thomas Ough (by trade a mason,) from whom the letter came, held the situation of district Postman in Plymouth for several years, and therefore must have been generally known in the town, and, from the character he bore, no doubt was equally respected ... [letter dated] "Adelaide, October, 27, 1839. Dear Brother .... THOMAS OUGH

[Advertisement], South Australian Register (29 March 1854), 1

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article48551182

MUSIC. THE ADELAIDE BRASS and REED BAND is now reorganized under the direction of Mr. Taylor, late Leader of Wombwell's Brass Band. Parties requiring the service of the above Band must apply on Tuesday or Friday evening at the practice-room. Thistle Inn, Weymouth-street; or to Mr. Taylor, Everett's Cottage, Grote-street. THOMAS OUGH, Band-Master. Adelaide, March 24, 1854.

"LAW AND CRIMINAL COURTS", South Australian Register (9 November 1855), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49295554

The plaintiff deposed that on the evening of June 21 he was engaged as a musician at the Black Swan. He left at half-past 9 with two other men. In passing through Light-square, the defendant drove up, with himself and two other men in his cart, and on their rounding a corner he was knocked down by the cart, and received serious bodily injury. He had a double bass Saxe-horn under his arm, which cost him £12. It was also run over, and damaged. Its repair cost him £2 10s. He was a mason, and in consequence of the injury he had sustained he lost eight weeks' work ... This was corroborated by the evidence of Wm. Jenkins and Wm. Denton, the plaintiff's musical companions.

"SUPREME COURT - CRIMINAL SITTINGS", The South Australian Advertiser (12 February 1861), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article830338 

... Thomas Ough, of Mount Pleasant, mason, applied to be excused, on account of deafness. He said he had assisted in the building of the Supreme Court, and having accidentally been precipitated from the scaffolding, it had shattered his acoustic nerves so much that that he was incapacitated from hearing evidence. His Honor having ascertained that Mr. Ough had really taken a hand in the erection of the highest legal temple oí the colony, and had one of his faculties impaired thereby, pronounced it to be a very proper and sufficient reason for exercising the indulgence of the Court, and without further hesitation excused him.

"MOUNT PLEASANT", South Australian Register (24 October 1861), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article50081403

... After the tea-tables were cleared, dancing commenced to the enlivening sounds of the violin and clarionet, ably handled by our old and respected friends Mr. H. Bushell and Mr. Thomas Ough, assisted occasionally by the piano, which was presided over by Mrs. T. N. Lewis - one of the guests of the evening ...

"DEATHS", South Australian Register (20 July 1870), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article39201512

OUGH. - On the 15th July, at his residence, Mount Pleasant, Thomas Ough, after a long and painful illness, aged 71 years - a colonist of 31 years.




OUSEY, Harriet

Teacher of the Pianoforte

Active Melbourne, VIC, by 1857
Died VIC, 1922


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Argus (4 April 1857), 6

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article7147441

[Advertisement], The Argus (12 June 1857), 8

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article7133420

  [Advertisement], The Argus (27 August 1859), 6

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5687036

[Advertisement], The Argus (9 July 1862), 8

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5718009

? "DESTRUCTIVE FIRE IN EAST KYNETON", The Argus (3 March 1866), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5768385

[Advertisement], The Lilydale Express (15 November 1918), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article74600521 

IRWELL SCHOOL OF MUSIC. Clarke Street, Lilydale. Principal: Miss H. OUSEY. (Registered Teacher of Music.) Formerly Organist at the Independent Church, Hawthorn. Piano, Theory, Organ. Pupils must have passed in Theory at either the University or Trinity College of Music, London, before learning the organ. Miss Ousey was trained in England, under one of the organists of the Manchester Cathedral. Miss Ousey's pupils have passed at the Melbourne University, Trinity College of Music, London, and at the Education Department, Melbourne.




O-WAI

Chinese musician

Active Ballarat, VIC, 1856


Documentation:

[Advertisement], The Star (30 November 1856), 3

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66039902

... THE CELEBRATED CHINESE MUSICIANS, O-Wai and A-Fou, Principal Musicians to the O-ho of Tibet, Lassa, will perform SOLOS, DUETS, &c. During the evening on the KAI-PI! and HUC-MUC! ...

"THEATRES", The Star (4 November 1856), 2

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66039954

... Our reporter being unable to obtain admission at the Montezuma last night, writes: - Proceeding outwards to the Celestial entertainment we met with a more benign reception. The great attraction of the evening was the performance of six Chinese upon certain musical instruments The number of persons present was about 2000, there being a great muster of Celestials. The principal performers were O-Wai and A-Fou, but what particular instruments they played we are at a loss to say. Out of the six musicians three performed on what bears some remote resemblance to an English violin; the bow used being somewhat similar to that used with a violincello. Two others performed on instruments played in the same fashion as a guitar, and the sixth had a small basket placed before him, fixed on three pieces of wood, which was evidently meant to represent a drum. This basket the performer beat with two very small drumsticks occasionally accompanying the action by singing. To say that these six Chinese 'discoursed most eloquent music', would be to make a great mistake, as the sound produced reminded us of certainly nothing terrestrial which we ever heard before. The novelty of this entertainment drew a large company, together, but the music was far too peculiar to be generally appreciated.

"A CHINESE CONCERT ON BALLARAT", The Argus (5 November 1856), 5

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article7139523

"A CHINESE CONCERT ON BALLARAT", The Perth Gazette (16 January 1857), 4

http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2929721




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